This report on Mexico’s state-owned oil company PEMEX is part of a series of OECD reviews of Mexico’s procurement institutions. PEMEX’s procurement system was overhauled after Mexico’s 2013 Energy Reform opened up the sector to private participation, requiring PEMEX to compete in an open market. Using the 2015 Recommendation of the OECD Council on Public Procurement as a benchmark, the review assesses the effectiveness and integrity of PEMEX’s entire procurement system while identifying a series of actions for improvement. A state-of-the art procurement system can not only help PEMEX achieve value for money on a sustainable basis, but also support other social and environmental policy objectives in Mexico.
Morelos is one of the smallest states in Mexico, and close to Mexico City. It contains a number of economic and environmental assets in its territory, but has weak productivity levels. This review looks at how Morelos is seeking to boost its economy, particularly through inclusive growth policies such as enhancing human capital and promoting innovation. It also highlights areas of untapped potential for economic growth across rural areas and the tourism and environmental sectors, and offers suggestions for how Morelos could address governance challenges.
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In Mexico, the unemployment rate has recovered from the impact of the global financial and economic crisis, returning to 3.6% in April 2017, about the same level as at the onset of the crisis nine years earlier.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
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Mexico had the 33rd lowest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country occupied the same position in 2015. The average single worker in Mexico faced a tax wedge of 20.1% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
The OECD's Integrity Review of Mexico is one of the first peer reviews to apply the new 2017 Recommendation of the Council on Public Integrity. It assesses (i) the coherence and comprehensiveness of the evolving public integrity system; (ii) the extent to which Mexico’s new reforms cultivate a culture of integrity across the public sector; and (iii) the effectiveness of increasingly stringent accountability mechanisms. In addition, the Review includes a sectoral focus on public procurement, one of the largest areas of government spending in the country and is considered a high-risk government activity for fraud and corruption. The Review provides several proposals for strengthening institutional arrangements and improving vertical and horizontal co-ordination, closing remaining gaps in various existing legal/policy frameworks, instilling integrity values and ensuring the sustainability of reforms.
These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.
This first review of Mexico’s energy policies by the International Energy Agency comes at a momentous time for the country’s energy sector. The broad-based Energy Reform, beginning with the Constitutional changes of December 2013, has continued at a steady and impressive pace. Its reach and scope amounts to one of the most ambitious energy system transformations in decades. The IEA applauds the government of Mexico for the progress made to date.
Starting from a largely closed and monopoly-driven energy market, the reform has taken concrete steps to harness market forces to attract investments and increase production while ensuring transparency and rule of law, improving energy security and strengthening the environmental sustainability of the energy sector.
Some policy areas, such as promoting competition and redesigning emergency preparedness, will have to remain a priority. The transition to open energy markets should continue in a transparent manner, and with regulatory certainty. The new roles and responsibilities for the public and private entities, in particular for energy supply emergencies and energy data collection, should be defined well. It is also critical to ensure sufficient resources for the several new or strengthened regulatory authorities.
For the long term, as Mexico’s population, cities and economy are projected to grow strongly, a cross-sectoral approach is required to limit the increase in energy demand and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Mexico and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
This multi-year project aims to improve the competitiveness of the Mexican economy by reforming and modifying the regulatory and institutional framework to support higher levels of investment, employment and growth.
As “market referees”, regulators contribute to the delivery of essential public utilities. The internal and external governance of regulatory agencies are essential to determining how regulators and the sectors they oversee perform. The OECD has developed an innovative framework that looks at the institutions, processes and practices that can enhance regulators’ performance. In this report, the framework is applied to the external governance of Mexico’s energy sector and its three regulatory bodies, the Agency for Safety, Energy and Environment (ASEA), the National Hydrocarbons Commissions (CNH) and the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE), following a structural reform of the sector and its regulatory institutions. The review offers insights into the progress and challenges in the implementation of the reform, highlighting the importance of structured co-ordination and accountability mechanisms based on a common strategic agenda, alignment of processes for good regulatory outcomes as well as sufficient operational flexibility. The report is complemented by forthcoming reviews of the internal governance arrangements of the three regulatory agencies, constituting a comprehensive body of work on the regulatory governance of Mexico’s energy sector.