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Japan has been successful at reducing the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) but there is room to reduce the burden of CVD and diabetes even more.
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To achieve greater gender equality in employment and more inclusive growth, Japan needs to change the workplace culture and ensure that the tax and social security systems do not reduce work incentives for second earners in households.
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The Japanese economy has for many years been characterised by a low corporate return on equity. Increasing returns requires better corporate governance that improves investment and the use of corporate resources, including cash holdings.
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Japan has the potential to grow its agricultural sector, including by producing high-value products that reflect the country’s growing reputation for sophisticated, healthy, and high-quality food. To assure the long-term health of Japan’s food and agriculture system, it is critical to increase its capacity to respond to market demands.
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This country note provides information on latest trends in income inequalities as well as key findings from the 2015 OECD report "In it Together: Why less inequality benefits all".
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Levels of alcohol consumption in Japan are slightly below the OECD average and have slightly decreased in the last 20 years. In 2012, an average of 7.2 litres of pure alcohol per capita was consumed in Japan, compared with an estimate of 9.1 litres in the OECD.
Gross government debt has risen to 226% of GDP. Rapid population ageing is putting continued pressure on public spending, while pushing down Japan’s potential growth rate to around ¾ per cent. Bold reforms are needed to revitalise the economy.
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Japan is ranked 23rd among the 34 OECD member countries in decreasing order with a tax wedge of 31.9% for an average single worker in 2014 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
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Water resources allocation determines who is able to use water resources, how, when and where. Capturing information from 27 OECD countries and key partner economies, the report presents key findings from the OECD Survey of Water Resources Allocation and case studies of successful allocation reform.