The Revenue Statistics in Asian Countries publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration and the OECD Development Centre. It compiles comparable tax revenue statistics for Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well-established methodology, for OECD member countries. Extending the OECD methodology to Asian countries enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among Asian economies and between OECD and Asian economies.
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The negative impact of the economic crisis on employment was smaller in Japan than most other OECD countries. The short-time work scheme contributed to the greater resilience of the Japanese labour market. Unemployment in Japan has fallen continuously since the crisis, reaching just 2.8%, of the labour force in March and April, its lowest level in more than 22 years.
The present report on Japan is the seventh report in the Investing in Youth series. In three statistical chapters, the report provides an overview of the labour market situation of young people in Japan, presents a portrait of young people who are not in employment, education or training (the NEETs) and analyses the income situation of young people in Japan. Two policy chapters provide recommendations on how Japan can improve the school-to-work transition of disadvantaged young people, and on how employment, social and training programmes can help the NEETs find their way back into education or work.
Earlier reviews in the same series have looked at youth policies in Brazil (2014), Latvia and Tunisia (2015), Australia, Lithuania and Sweden (2016).
Over the past ten years economic growth in Asia has contributed to a reduction of poverty as well as fertility rates, and greater prosperity has contributed to gains in life expectancy. However, at present many workers still work in informal employment, frequently for long hours at little pay and without social protection coverage. A growing demand for social support, extending the coverage of social protection benefits and improving the job quality of workers will be among Asia’s major challenges in future. This report considers these challenges, providing policy examples from countries to illustrate good practice, including Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore and Viet Nam.
While growth has picked up, more needs to be done for Japan to overcome a record high government debt ratio and an accelerating decline in its working-age population.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
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Japan had the 24th lowest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country occupied the same position in 2015. The average single worker in Japan faced a tax wedge of 32.4% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.
As part of the STI Outlook 2016, the OECD has released policy profiles by country. These include cross-country analyses that draw on the first joint EC-OECD survey on STI policies. They focus on major STI policy areas, instruments and trends.
This publication provides detailed country notes on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries.