In 2014, Japan provided USD 9.2 billion in net ODA (preliminary data). This represented 0.19% of gross national income (GNI) and a 15.3% decrease in real terms from 2013, due to lower levels of debt relief in 2014.
This report reviews the quality of health care in Japan, and seeks to highlight best practices, and provides a series of targeted assessments and recommendations for further improvements to quality of care. One of Japan’s foremost policy challenges is to create an economically-active ageing society. Excellent health care will be central to achieving this. A striking feature of the Japanese health system is its openness and flexibility. In general, clinics and hospitals can provide whatever services they consider appropriate, clinicians can credential themselves in any speciality and patients can access any clinician without referral. These arrangements have the advantage of accessibility and responsiveness. Such light-touch governance and abundant flexibility, however, may not best meet the health care needs of a super-ageing society. Japan needs to shift to a more structured health system, separating out more clearly different health care functions (primary care, acute care and long-term care, for example) to ensure that peoples’ needs can be met by the most appropriate service, in a coordinated manner if needed. As this differentiation occurs, the infrastructure to monitor and improve the quality of care must simultaneously deepen and become embedded at every level of governance –institutionally, regionally and nationally.
OECD Corporate Governance Working Paper No.17. This report examines the influence of institutional shareholders and their activities towards good corporate governance, the historical changes to practices within shareholder meetings and the role that institutional shareholders have played in the improvement of corporate governance within Japanese listed companies.
Specific country notes have been prepared using data from the database OECD Health Statistics 2015, July 2015 version. The notes are available in PDF format.
A dashboard of key government indicators by country, to help you analyse international comparisons of public sector performance.
English, PDF, 355kb
To achieve greater gender equality in employment and more inclusive growth, Japan needs to change the workplace culture and ensure that the tax and social security systems do not reduce work incentives for second earners in households.
English, PDF, 397kb
The Japanese economy has for many years been characterised by a low corporate return on equity. Increasing returns requires better corporate governance that improves investment and the use of corporate resources, including cash holdings.
English, PDF, 409kb
Japan has the potential to grow its agricultural sector, including by producing high-value products that reflect the country’s growing reputation for sophisticated, healthy, and high-quality food. To assure the long-term health of Japan’s food and agriculture system, it is critical to increase its capacity to respond to market demands.
The rise in Internet usage among young people has seen a corresponding increase in international concern regarding their online safety. In line with the Recommendation on the Protection of Children Online, the Japanese government has initiated efforts to develop improved indicators to measure Internet literacy among youth.
Mr. Gurría presented the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of Japan, held several meetings including with the Prime Minister, took part in the launch event for the Education 2030 project and delivered a keynote speech at the International Symposium on Corporate Governance and Japan’s Growth Strategy.