Women represent a vast untapped resource for Japan. Their employment rate in 2014 was fully 18 percentage points below that of men. Closing that gap is particularly urgent for Japan: the total population in Japan has already begun to fall and is projected to decline by almost 25% by 2050. Moreover, the share of the elderly (65+) is projected to rise from around 26% today to almost 40% at mid-century.
With 25 years of sluggish economic growth, Japan’s per capita income has fallen from a level matching the average of the top half of OECD countries in the early 1990s to 14% below that today. Weak growth, together with rapid population ageing, has driven public debt into uncharted territory. Revitalising growth is thus the top priority for the Japanese government. With the labour force shrinking more rapidly than the population, per capita output can only grow through improvements in labour productivity and labour force participation. Japan’s highly-skilled labour force and its technological leadership can help close the gap with leading OECD countries in per capita income. But broad-based structural reforms, as envisaged in the third arrow of Abenomics, are needed to allow these strengths to fully achieve their potential. The initial impact of Abenomics in 2013 was impressive, and the reform process needs to continue.
Japan is embarked on a demographic transition without precedent in human history: the population is both declining and ageing rapidly. This raises important questions about the country's future economic geography, as public policies will need both to respond to these shifts and also to shape them. Demographic change will have particularly important implications for the settlement pattern of the country, and this, in turn, will affect Japan's ability to sustain economic growth and the well-being of its citizens. This Review therefore focuses on the spatial implications of demographic change and the response of spatial policies to it, particularly as these interact with other policies aimed at sustaining the productivity growth that a "super-ageing" Japan will need in order to maintain its future prosperity. The Japanese authorities have recently put in place a complex package of long-term spatial and structural policies aimed at meeting this challenge. Their experience should be of first-order interest to other OECD countries, as most face the prospect of rapid population ageing and many are also projected to experience significant population decline over the coming decades.
Japan must make revitalising growth its number one priority with reforms to boost productivity and encourage more women and older people into jobs to compensate for its rapidly shrinking labour force, according to the OECD.
The Secretary-General met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe as well as several Ministers and high-level authorities of Japan. He spoke at a number of events and also presented the OECD Territorial Review of Japan and the publication Japan: Boosting Growth and Well-being in an Ageing Society.
On the occasion of the 5th anniversary of 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, OECD Secretary-General, Angel Gurría, shared his sustained support for the victims and their families.
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Data from the Japanese government suggest there are currently over 1 000 shipyards in Japan. Some of these yards are privately owned individual enterprises, while others form part of larger private or public companies that operate multiple yards. Japan’s shipbuilders exist within a wider maritime cluster that provides crucial upstream and downstream products and services.
Achieving strong growth in the global economy remains elusive, with only a modest recovery in advanced economies and slower activity in emerging markets, according to the OECD’s latest Interim Economic Outlook.
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Agricultural research fellowship award grants and international conferences sponsorships of the Co-operative Research Programme (CRP): Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems; advice for applicants for funding.
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This 4-page online document presents the key findings from OECD Pensions at a Glance 2015 and why it is important for Japan. It also identifies two key pension policy measures which would help improve the performance of pension systems in Japan