This paper sheds light on the two types of non-discrimination provisions considered the founding stones of the multilateral system: the most favoured nation (MFN) clause - as developed under the GATT and GATS - and the non-discrimination clause among countries adhering to the OECD Codes of Liberalisation.
Divestment by multinational enterprises is an important yet understudied phenomenon. The few available estimates indicate that about a fifth of all foreign affiliates are divested every five years. This working paper presents the findings from a novel cross-country firm-level dataset with financial and ownership information.
The international investment working paper series – including policies and trends and the broader implications of multinational enterprise – is designed to make available to a wide readership selected studies undertaken under the aegis of the OECD Investment Committee, by OECD staff, or by outside consultants working on OECD Investment Committee projects.
The post financial crisis period has been associated with increased countercyclical use of various financial policies, including residency-based measures. This paper analyses in a single analytical framework the relative effectiveness of three types of financial policies – macroprudential (foundations), currency-based (fences), and residency-based measures (fire doors).
This paper sheds light on their potential costs in terms of foregone investments. Applying an augmented gravity model, covering 60 advanced and emerging countries over the period 1997–2016, it estimates the elasticity of bilateral FDI positions and cross-border M&A activity to FDI restrictions as measured by the OECD FDI Regulatory Restrictiveness Index.
This paper explores the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in the low-carbon transition in OECD and G20 countries. It tracks GHG emissions and energy investments and analyses the impact of on investments in renewable electricity. A descriptive analysis of SOEs’ role in the electricity sector shows the importance of SOEs, including investments in both renewables and fossil-fuel-based electricity generation.
This paper reviews alleged societal benefits and costs of International Investment Agreements (IIAs) as suggested by academia, governments, business and civil society. It sets out the wide range of issues that diverse actors have proposed in the context of assessing the societal benefits and costs of IIAs.
Compensation for adjudicators is generally considered as a core issue for judicial independence and for attracting good judges in the institutional design for courts. This paper examines compensation systems for adjudicators and dispute settlement administrators in investor-state dispute settlement. The paper uses in part a comparative perspective based on approaches in domestic courts in advanced economies.
This working paper assesses the impact of climate mitigation policies and the quality of the investment environment on investment and innovation in renewable power in OECD and G20 countries. It also examines how countries’ investment environments interact with climate mitigation policies to influence investment and patent activity in renewable power.
This Policy Paper describes the relatively new phenomenon of publicly-capitalised green investment banks and examines why they are being created and how they are mobilising private investment. It draws on the OECD report “Green Investment Banks: Scaling up Private Investment in Low-carbon, Climate-resilient Infrastructure".