This report discusses the main results of a project on how to reduce air pollution from urban public transport in Kazakhstan, by providing an analysis for designing a green public investment programme in this sector. This sector represents an opportunity for Kazakhstan to address key objectives in its environmental and climate-related policies as part of the country’s ambitions to transition to a green economic path of development. The investment programme is also designed to support the modernisation of the urban transport fleet in the country and stimulate the domestic market to shift to modern buses powered by clean fuels. The programme is foreseen to be implemented in two phases: the first covers the cities of Kostanay and Shymkent and the second, all major urban centres in Kazakhstan. These investments are expected to result in significant air improvement.
The APEC membership, comprising many dynamic emerging economies, shares the common challenge of meeting growing expectations from a young workforce with increasing appetites for new and better infrastructure services.
Evidence on the role played by investment in global value chains (GVCs) can assist policy work on GVCs, trade, investment and development. Drawing on new and improved measures of trade and investment, these country notes provide relevant statistical information from OECD databases on trade, investment, the activities of multinational enterprises and global value chains.
For over 50 years, the Code has provided a balanced framework for countries to progressively remove unnecessary barriers to the movement of capital, while providing flexibility to cope with situations of economic and financial instability. In March 2016, adhering countries adopted terms of reference for a review of the Code with a view to strengthening it and ensuring its continued relevance.
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Terrorists use corruption to both finance and perpetrate terrorism. This brochure looks how corruption and the criminal exploitation of natural resources facilitate terrorism. It outlines how, in these areas, the OECD can help the international community respond to the threat caused by terrorism and identifies potential further work by the OECD.
This publication puts forward a research agenda advocating the importance of market competition, effective market regulation and competition policies for achieving inclusive growth and shared prosperity in emerging and developing economies. It is the result of a global partnership and shared commitment between the World Bank Group and the OECD.
Investment in clean energy infrastructure needs to be scaled up to support the broader development, economic and climate agenda. This will require leveraging private investment, however investment in this area remains constrained by barriers, including market and government failures. This page describes what tools the OECD provides to governments to create an enabling environment for investment flows to clean energy infrastructure.
To leverage the impact of relatively limited public resources, over a dozen national and sub-national governments have created public green investment banks (GIBs) and GIB-like entities.
This report assesses the state of Armenia’s sanitation services, which are in poor shape, and proposes ways forward for reforming the sector by: ensuring equitable access by all and identifying solutions that work for the poorest and most remote communities; generating economies of scale and scope, and reducing both investment and operational costs for the efficient delivery of sanitation services; and moving towards sustainable cost recovery for the sanitation sector, by identifying how much funding can be mobilised from within the sector and how much external transfers are required. The state of Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate, with 51% of the population in rural areas using unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks, and better access but degraded sewerage-system infrastructure in urban areas, posing health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water. According to preliminary estimates, EUR 2.6 billion of investments will be required to meet Armenia’s sanitation needs, with approximately EUR 1 billion needing to be spent in the next 7 to 10 years. Given the country’s current economic situation, this investment will have to be spread over time and targeted to avoid further deterioration of infrastructure and increase of the financing gap.
15 September 2017 - A complaint submitted in 2015 by former workers of Heineken’s subsidiary Bralima in the Democratic Republic of Congo was successfully resolved recently. This article by Roel Nieuwenkamp explains the circumstances and why this agreement is being hailed as historic.