This report presents an overview of existing environmental credit lines in the EU’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine), which are mostly supported by International Finance Institutions and donors and disbursed by local commercial banks. Lessons learned from this type of credit-line implementation provide useful insights for spurring the banking sector into financing green investments.
Trade and investment in natural mineral resources hold great potential for generating income, growth and prosperity, sustaining livelihoods and fostering local development. However, a large share of these resources is located in conflict affected and high-risk areas. In these areas, exploitation of natural mineral resources is significant and may contribute, directly or indirectly, to armed conflict, gross human rights violations and hinder economic and social development. The OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas provides step-by-step management recommendations endorsed by governments for global responsible supply chains of all minerals, in order for companies to respect human rights and avoid contributing to conflict through their mineral or metal purchasing decisions and practices. The Due Diligence Guidance for minerals may be used by any company potentially sourcing any minerals or metals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas, and is intended to cultivate transparent, conflict-free supply chains and sustainable corporate engagement in the minerals sector.
This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and "green" innovation in shipbuilding.
The 2016 Sweden Review of Innovation Policy deepens the 2012 Review by focusing on six policy initiatives central to the 2008 and 2012 Swedish Research and Innovation Bills, notably: 1) the increase in funding for university research, 2) the establishment of Strategic Research Areas, 3) actions designed to enhance the role of research institutes in Sweden’s innovation system, 4) the definition and funding of Strategic Innovation Areas in collaboration with industrial, academic and research institute actors, 5) the initiation of a Challenge-Driven Innovation programme addressing societal challenges, 6) improved prioritisation and support for Swedish participation in European research and innovation activities.
Since the start of the economic reform process in the 70s China has been able to generate a large volume of investment, both from domestic and foreign sources. This high volume of investment was instrumental in sustaining strong economic growth and related improvements in living standards. However, this growth model is not longer sustainable. Returns on investment have fallen, excessive capacity is plaguing several sectors and the negative externalities have been very onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and rising income inequality. A key objective of the Chinese government is therefore to move the economy towards a more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth path as envisaged by the 13th Five-Year Plan. In this adjustment process, the country is seeking new approaches for smarter, greener and more productive investment. This will require mutually reinforcing reforms to improve investment planning, rebalance the role of government and market forces, mainstream responsible business conduct and encourage greater private investment, especially in green infrastructure. China’s growing role as an outward investor may act as catalyser for the required reforms at home, as Chinese private and state-owned enterprises have to adopt internationally recognised practices and standards .
Tourism Trends and Policies, published biennially, analyses tourism performance and major policy trends, initiatives and reforms across 50 OECD countries and partner economies, providing up-to-date tourism data and analysis. The report is an international reference and benchmark on how effectively countries are supporting competitiveness, innovation and growth in tourism.
Tourism has successfully weathered the effects of the global economic crisis, and active tourism policies have played an essential role in supporting a competitive and sustainable tourism economy. The 2016 edition captures these ongoing trends - presenting standardised data covering domestic, inbound and outbound tourism, enterprises and employment, and internal tourism consumption - and reports on how seamless transport can enhance the tourism experience, as well as the opportunities, challenges and implications of the sharing economy for tourism.
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This OECD report lays an empirical foundation for structuring economic policies to facilitate Chile’s participation in global value chains and to maximise the associated benefits for national firms and workers.
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Data from the Japanese government suggest there are currently over 1 000 shipyards in Japan. Some of these yards are privately owned individual enterprises, while others form part of larger private or public companies that operate multiple yards. Japan’s shipbuilders exist within a wider maritime cluster that provides crucial upstream and downstream products and services.
Why do financial markets see so little risk, while companies that invest in the real economy appear to be much more prudent? How will we fund future pensions when interest on the products that finance them are so low? Where will the trillions of dollars needed to improve and extend infrastructures come from? How should international capital flows be regulated? These and other challenges are discussed in this collection of expert opinions on the social, economic and policy perspectives facing international investors, governments, businesses, and citizens worldwide.
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This update report by the IMF and the OECD was delivered to G20 in February 2016.