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Reports


  • 7-January-2020

    English

    OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains

    As the demand for food increases, agriculture will continue to attract investment and new actors may be confronted with ethical dilemmas and find it difficult to implement responsible business conduct in their practices. In this context the OECD and the FAO are working together to develop due diligence guidance to help enterprises observe existing widely-supported standards for RBC along agricultural supply chains.

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  • 19-December-2019

    English

    Access to Green Finance for SMEs in Georgia

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in Georgia’s economy. SMEs provide more than 67% of employment and about 62% of gross value added. Although the environmental footprint of individual SMEs may be low, their aggregate impact in many respects exceeds that of large businesses. Commercial banks have an important role to play in providing access to green finance, particularly for SMEs. This report reviews the experience with green lending in the SME sector in Georgia. The analysis identifies the main challenges with lending to SMEs for green projects and discusses possible solutions. The report, in particular, looks at the role of the government and the policy instruments it can use to stimulate higher demand for green lending in the SME sector.
  • 10-December-2019

    English

    The Missing Entrepreneurs 2019 - Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship

    The Missing Entrepreneurs 2019 is the fifth edition in a series of biennial reports that examine how public policies at national, regional and local levels can support job creation, economic growth and social inclusion by overcoming obstacles to business start-ups and self-employment by people from disadvantaged or under-represented groups in entrepreneurship. It shows that there is substantial potential to combat unemployment and increase labour market participation by facilitating business creation in populations such as women, youth, the unemployed, and immigrants. However, the specific problems they face need to be recognised and addressed with effective and efficient policy measures. The 2019 edition contains two thematic policy chapters on the potential of digital entrepreneurship for making entrepreneurship more inclusive and increasing the scale-up potential of start-ups by entrepreneurs from disadvantaged groups. These thematic chapters discuss current policy issues and present the range of policy actions currently used in EU and OECD countries. The chapters also offer policy advice to national, regional and local policy makers. Finally, the report contains country profiles that highlight recent trends in entrepreneurship by women, youth, seniors and immigrants, key policy issues and recent policy actions in each of the 28 EU Member States.
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  • 5-December-2019

    English

    Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in Italy

    Universities’ entrepreneurship and innovative practices are burgeoning all over Italy. Some of these practices resonate at the international level while others have a local impact. Italian higher education faces some important challenges and actions need to be taken to unleash its full potential. Promoting the entrepreneurial and innovation agenda can help Italy improve the overall performance of the higher education system, and of individual universities, in all regions. The government has started providing a strategic support to engagement, which could catalyse Italy’s innovation capacity, human capital endowment, and well-being. This review illustrates policy actions promoting the entrepreneurial and innovative activities in the Italian Higher Education System, and focuses on 11 case study universities. It discusses strategies and practices adopted by Italian higher education institutions to innovate, engage, and generate value for the society and the economy. This review is part of a series of national reports implementing the HEinnovate framework. HEinnovate is a guiding framework that the OECD and the European Commission have developed to promote the 'entrepreneurial and innovation agenda' in higher education.
  • 2-December-2019

    English

    The Policy Framework for Investment (PFI)

    The Policy Framework for Investment (PFI) is a non-prescriptive tool for improving investment policy for development. It helps governments to design and implement policy reforms to create a truly attractive, robust and competitive environment for domestic and foreign investment.

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  • 18-November-2019

    English

    The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Economic Diagnosis and Possible Solutions

    This report explores the main reasons behind the unreliable supply of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in health-care systems and policy options to address the issue. Tc-99m is used in 85% of nuclear medicine diagnostic scans performed worldwide – around 30 million patient examinations every year. These scans allow diagnoses of diseases in many parts of the human body, including the skeleton, heart and circulatory system, and the brain. Medical isotopes are subject to radioactive decay and have to be delivered just-in-time through a complex supply chain. However, ageing production facilities and a lack of investment have made the supply of Tc-99m unreliable. This report analyses the use and substitutability of Tc-99m in health care, health-care provider payment mechanisms for scans, and the structure of the supply chain. It concludes that the main reasons for unreliable supply are that production is not economically viable and that the structure of the supply chain prevents producers from charging prices that reflect the full costs of production and supply.
  • 14-November-2019

    English

    Global value chains and the shipbuilding industry

    This paper presents new descriptive evidence on value added generation and sourcing patterns of intermediate inputs for ship construction of major shipbuilding economies. The findings reveal that shipbuilding relies heavily on intermediate inputs as around 70-80% of the final output value of ship production is generated through supplier sectors.

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  • 14-November-2019

    English

    Regions in Industrial Transition - Policies for People and Places

    This report offers guidance on how to manage industrial transition and is directed towards all policymakers seeking to improve the 'what' and 'how' of policies that promote industrial change. It identifies how regions in industrial transition can become more competitive and more resilient in the context of major shifts brought about by globalisation, decarbonisation and ongoing technological change. It takes stock of discussions emanating from a series of peer-learning workshops jointly organised in 2018 by the European Commission and the OECD. The report presents a number of implementation tools that policymakers have at their disposal to activate regional innovation potential to help tackle these challenges and the often accompanying ones such as an unsuitable skills base, unemployment due to deindustrialisation, and limited investment opportunities. Bringing together economic analysis and regional and country practice from the participating regions and countries on the topics of the future of work, entrepreneurship, innovation, transitioning to a climate-neutral economy and inclusive growth, the report identifies cross-cutting lessons to help policy-makers better design the next generation of smart specialisation and regional innovation strategies.
  • 12-November-2019

    English

    Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in Austria

    The Austrian higher education system has consistently recognised the need to become more entrepreneurial and innovative with a view to supporting the economic, social and cultural development of the country and its regions. Over the past decades, the government has been implementing a broad reform agenda to provide strategic funding, diversify higher education institutions (HEIs) and promote an allocation of students that improves the quality of services and empowers them vis à vis the future of work and society. This review illustrates policy actions promoting the development of entrepreneurial and innovative activities in the Higher Education System and individual HEIs. In addition, based on information gathered during study visits, the review discusses strategies and practices adopted by Austrian HEIs to innovate, engage, and generate value for their own ecosystems and networks. The review is part of a series of national reports implementing the HEinnovate framework. HEinnovate is a holistic framework that the OECD and the European Commission have developed to promote the 'entrepreneurial and innovation agenda' in higher education.
  • 11-November-2019

    English

    Ending child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains

    This report presents research findings and recommendations on child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains. Jointly authored by the ILO, OECD, IOM and UNICEF under the aegis of Alliance 8.7, the report also represents the first ever attempt to measure child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains.

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