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Reports


  • 18-November-2019

    English

    The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Economic Diagnosis and Possible Solutions

    This report explores the main reasons behind the unreliable supply of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in health-care systems and policy options to address the issue. Tc-99m is used in 85% of nuclear medicine diagnostic scans performed worldwide – around 30 million patient examinations every year. These scans allow diagnoses of diseases in many parts of the human body, including the skeleton, heart and circulatory system, and the brain. Medical isotopes are subject to radioactive decay and have to be delivered just-in-time through a complex supply chain. However, ageing production facilities and a lack of investment have made the supply of Tc-99m unreliable. This report analyses the use and substitutability of Tc-99m in health care, health-care provider payment mechanisms for scans, and the structure of the supply chain. It concludes that the main reasons for unreliable supply are that production is not economically viable and that the structure of the supply chain prevents producers from charging prices that reflect the full costs of production and supply.
  • 14-November-2019

    English

    Global value chains and the shipbuilding industry

    This paper presents new descriptive evidence on value added generation and sourcing patterns of intermediate inputs for ship construction of major shipbuilding economies. The findings reveal that shipbuilding relies heavily on intermediate inputs as around 70-80% of the final output value of ship production is generated through supplier sectors.

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  • 14-November-2019

    English

    Regions in Industrial Transition - Policies for People and Places

    This report offers guidance on how to manage industrial transition and is directed towards all policymakers seeking to improve the 'what' and 'how' of policies that promote industrial change. It identifies how regions in industrial transition can become more competitive and more resilient in the context of major shifts brought about by globalisation, decarbonisation and ongoing technological change. It takes stock of discussions emanating from a series of peer-learning workshops jointly organised in 2018 by the European Commission and the OECD. The report presents a number of implementation tools that policymakers have at their disposal to activate regional innovation potential to help tackle these challenges and the often accompanying ones such as an unsuitable skills base, unemployment due to deindustrialisation, and limited investment opportunities.Bringing together economic analysis and regional and country practice from the participating regions and countries on the topics of the future of work, entrepreneurship, innovation, transitioning to a climate-neutral economy and inclusive growth, the report identifies cross-cutting lessons to help policy-makers better design the next generation of smart specialisation and regional innovation strategies.
  • 12-November-2019

    English

    Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in Austria

    The Austrian higher education system has consistently recognised the need to become more entrepreneurial and innovative with a view to supporting the economic, social and cultural development of the country and its regions. Over the past decades, the government has been implementing a broad reform agenda to provide strategic funding, diversify higher education institutions (HEIs) and promote an allocation of students that improves the quality of services and empowers them vis à vis the future of work and society.This review illustrates policy actions promoting the development of entrepreneurial and innovative activities in the Higher Education System and individual HEIs. In addition, based on information gathered during study visits, the review discusses strategies and practices adopted by Austrian HEIs to innovate, engage, and generate value for their own ecosystems and networks. The review is part of a series of national reports implementing the HEinnovate framework. HEinnovate is a holistic framework that the OECD and the European Commission have developed to promote the 'entrepreneurial and innovation agenda' in higher education.
  • 11-November-2019

    English

    Ending child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains

    This report presents research findings and recommendations on child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains. Jointly authored by the ILO, OECD, IOM and UNICEF under the aegis of Alliance 8.7, the report also represents the first ever attempt to measure child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains.

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  • 5-November-2019

    English

    Africa's Development Dynamics 2019 - Achieving Productive Transformation

    What are the major economic and social trends in Africa? What is Africa’s role in globalisation? This annual report presents an Africa open to the world and towards the future. Africa’s Development Dynamics uses the lessons learned in the five African regions – Central, East, North, Southern and West Africa – to develop recommendations and share good practices. The report identifies innovative policies and offers practical policy recommendations, adapted to the specificities of African economies. Drawing on the most recent available statistics, this analysis of development dynamics aims to help African leaders reach the targets of the African Union’s Agenda 2063 at all levels: continental, regional, national, and local. Every year this report will focus on one strategic theme.This 2019 edition explores policies for productive transformation. It proposes three main policy focus for transforming firms: providing business services to clusters of firms; developing regional production networks; and improving exporting firms’ ability to thrive in fast-changing markets.This volume feeds into a policy debate between African Union’s nations, citizens, entrepreneurs and researchers. It aims to be part of a new co-operation between countries and regions focused on mutual learning and the preservation of common goods. This report is the result of a partnership between the African Union Commission and the OECD Development Centre.
  • 31-October-2019

    English

    SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Ireland

    This publication presents the findings of an OECD review of SME and entrepreneurship policy in Ireland. It assesses the challenges for SME and entrepreneurship development and offers recommendations for future policy. SMEs and entrepreneurs play a crucial role in the Irish economy, with SMEs accounting for more than 70% of employment. Attitudes to entrepreneurship are positive and SME innovation rates are high. However, SME productivity has not been increasing in recent years, business entry and exit rates are low and few Irish SMEs are directly engaged in exports. There is also untapped potential for entrepreneurship among women, youth and migrants, and variations across the country in SME and entrepreneurship performance. Ireland has a strong set of policies and programmes to address these challenges. The business environment is generally favourable, there are many best practice programmes for supporting high potential SMEs and entrepreneurs, and strong co-ordination of policies across government. At the same time, policies could be strengthened in areas such as growing productivity in medium-sized businesses, increasing the start-up rate, increasing exports, fostering enterprise networks and clusters, drafting a unified SME and entrepreneurship policy strategy document and strengthening the role of Local Enterprise Offices.
  • 28-October-2019

    English

    Foreign Direct Investment Statistics: Data, Analysis and Forecasts

    Latest statistics for global foreign direct investment (FDI) flows and international mergers and acquisitions (M&A). Analysis, trends and forecasts from the OECD using FDI statistics collected in accordance with latest international guidelines.

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  • 28-October-2019

    English, PDF, 1,592kb

    FDI in Figures, October 2019

    28/10/2019 - In the first half of 2019, global FDI flows decreased by 20% compared to the last half of 2018, to USD 572 billion. FDI flows dropped by 5% to USD 361 billion in Q1 2019 and by 42% to USD 210 billion in Q2 2019.

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  • 25-October-2019

    English

    OECD Reviews of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Colombia

    OECD Reviews of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Colombia analyses recent developments of the digital economy in the country, reviews policies related to digitalisation and makes recommendations to increase policy coherence in this area. The report examines recent developments in infrastructures for the digital economy, telecom markets and related regulations and policies in Colombia. It reviews trends in the use of digital technologies by individuals, businesses and the government, and examines policies to foster diffusion. The report also examines opportunities and challenges raised by digitalisation for production, innovation, jobs and skills.The report reconsiders these policies in relation to their coherence among different domains and in order to foster synergies across government ministries, levels and institutions, based on the integrated policy framework of the OECD's Going Digital: Making the Transformation Work for Growth and Well-being project.
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