Kazakhstan is aware of the importance of innovation for its socio-economic development, including the diversification of its resource-based economy. Since the start of the millennium, Kazakhstan has put in place key components of a modern research and innovation system. This has helped improve scientific output and resulted in some successes in technology commercialisation. Further commitment and effort will be needed to strengthen innovation capabilities and make the most of Kazakhstan‘s advantages. This requires further reforms in order, notably, to strengthen the funding model of universities, intensify and broaden knowledge transfer, improve the governance of the research and innovation system, and increase the effectiveness of innovation incentives and policies, with a focus on implementation and evaluation.
SMEs make an important contribution to the Canadian economy. They account for 60% of total employment, and Canada performs very well across many measures of small business generation, growth and innovation. However, further increases in productivity in medium-sized firms, an increase in SME exports, a greater business start-up rate and an increased number of high-growth firms could bring substantial benefits for the national economy.
This report identifies several areas where new policy approaches could help achieve these objectives. Framework conditions for small business could be improved in business taxation, public procurement, access to financing and the commercialisation of research. New and extended programmes could be introduced in domains including entrepreneurship education, management advice and consultancy, and workforce skills development, notably for minority populations. A major effort is recommended to prioritise women's entrepreneurship, including by supporting social enterprises, and federal support could be offered to support the exchange of information on best practice SME regulations and programmes among provinces and territories. All this could be brought together and co-ordinated through the umbrella of a national strategy and lead agency for SME and entrepreneurship policy.
This review, which was prepared in response to Kazakhstan's 2012 request to adhere to the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises (OECD Declaration), analyses the general framework for investment as well as most recent reforms, and shows where further efforts are necessary. It assesses Kazakhstan’s ability to comply with the principles of openness, transparency and non-discrimination and its policy convergence with the OECD Declaration, including responsible business conduct practices. Capitalising on the OECD Policy Framework for Investment, this review studies other policy areas that are of key relevance to investment such as SME policy, infrastructure development, trade policy as well as anti-corruption efforts. Since the first review of Kazakhstan, in 2012, the authorities have made strides in opening the country to international investment and in improving the policy framework for investment as part of their efforts to diversify the economy to avoid continued overreliance on oil. Additional policy measures are nevertheless required to create a stimulating environment for investment if the government wants to fulfil its goal of economic diversification and sustainable development.
Although Finland achieved a widely acclaimed transformation to become a leading knowledge-based economy in the late 20th century, the 2009 recession, which led to Nokia’s restructuring and the downsizing of traditional sectors, has weighed on the economy, productivity growth and international competitiveness. Numerous policy reforms have since been undertaken, and public and private investment, especially in applied R&D, has been cut back. Strengthening Finland’s innovation system and lifting the country out of a period of uncertainty requires a coherent and unified vision for science, technology and innovation (STI) at the level of policy measures and research priorities. This vision is oriented towards renewal built around societal transitions, new competitive advantages at global scale, and productivity growth. It is also dependent upon intense interaction between national and regional-levels and better co-ordination and co-operation among policy actors.
OECD Week 2017, that includes the Forum (6-7 June), the Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level (7-8 June), as well as other meetings, will place a central emphasis on "Bridging Divides" and on policies that could deliver a more inclusive globalisation, and, as such, respond to growing citizens’ concerns that globalisation has not benefitted fairly to all.
This joint OECD-ILO publication provides guidance on how local and regional governments can foster business-education partnerships in apprenticeship programmes and other types of work-based learning, drawing on case studies across nine countries. There has been increasing interest in apprenticeships which combine on the job training with classroom-based study, providing a smooth transition from school to work. There are benefits to both individuals and employers from participating in apprenticeships, including increased productivity and job quality. Successful implementation is contingent on having a high level of employer engagement at the local level, notably in the design, development and delivery of programmes.
The OECD Business and Finance Outlook is an annual publication that presents unique data and analysis that looks at what might affect and change, both favourably and unfavourably, tomorrow’s world of business, finance and investment. Using analysis from a wide range of perspectives, this year’s edition addresses some forces influencing economic developments that have contributed to recent surprises in elections and referendums. A common theme of these surprises has been voter discontent with globalisation and immigration that are perceived to be causes of unemployment and falling living standards for substantial segments of society in a number of OECD Countries. This Outlook’s focus is on ways to enhance “fairness”, in the sense of strengthening global governance to ensure a level playing field in trade, investment and corporate behaviour, through the setting and better enforcement of global standards. A brief review of important developments contributing to post-war globalisation is provided and a number of policy domains are covered. These include exchange rates and capital account management, financial regulation since the global financial crisis, the rising weight of state-owned enterprises in the world economy, competition policy to deal with international cartels, the cost of raising capital, responsible business conduct and bribery and corruption.
This 2016 edition of OECD Research and Development Expenditure in Industry provides statistical data on R&D expenditure broken down by industrial and service sectors. Data are presented in current and constant USD PPP values. Coverage is provided for 31 OECD countries and four non-member economies. The coverage of ANBERD includes multiple sectors, with extended coverage of service sectors according to ISIC Revision 4 classification. This publication is a unique source of detailed internationally-comparable business R&D data, making it an invaluable tool for economic research and analysis.
The slowdown in productivity growth - already underway before the crisis – combined with sluggish investment, continued to undermine rises in economic output and material living standards in recent years in many of the world’s economies, according to a new report released today by the OECD.
This paper is designed to serve as a reference for subsequent papers arising out of MultiProd, a project aimed at studying productivity patterns across countries and over time. MultiProd provides harmonised micro-aggregated data of paramount importance for investigating the extent to which different policy frameworks can shape firm productivity and examining the way resources are allocated to more productive firms.