Industry and entrepreneurship

Input-Output Tables


Date of release: December 2015

Input-Output Tables (IOTs) describe the sale and purchase relationships between producers and consumers within an economy. They can either show flows of final and intermediate goods and services defined according to industry outputs (industry × industry tables) or according to product outputs (product × product tables).


The OECD database of harmonised national IOTs takes the industry × industry approach. This allows better integration with collections of statistics compiled according to industrial activity such as R&D expenditure, employment, foreign direct investment and energy consumption. The OECD IOT database is a very useful empirical tool for economic research and structural analysis at the international level as it highlights inter-industrial relationships covering all sectors of the economy.


The latest set of OECD harmonised national Input-Output Tables presents matrices of inter-industrial flows of goods and services (produced domestically and imported, Figure 1) in current prices (USD million), for all OECD countries and 27 non-member economies (including all G20 countries), covering the years 1995 to 2011 (see country and sector coverage, as well as main data sources used for IOT).


The following information is available in OECD.Stat:

  • Harmonised national Input-Output Tables and Leontief inverse matrices
  • Import content of exports indicator (see Figure 2)


The tables are intimately related to OECD’s Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) Tables in which the diagonal blocks represent domestic transaction flows of intermediate goods and services across industries, while the off-diagonal blocks represent the inter-country flows of intermediates via exports and imports.  The ICIO is the principle source of the indicators produced under the joint OECD-WTO project to measure Trade in Value Added (TiVA) and it also contributes to environmental analyses by being a main input into the measurement of CO2 embodied in international trade.


Figure 1. Format of OECD harmonised national Input-Output Tables

IOTs Figure1 Input-Output Tables format


Figure 2. Import content of exports, as a % of total exports

 IOT Figure 2 Input-Output imports content exports


Related OECD databases for industrial analyses

CO2 embodied in International Trade

Inter-Country Input-Output Tables (ICIO)

STAN Industry (STAN)

STAN Bilateral Trade by Industry and End-Use (BTDIxE)

STAN Business R&D Expenditures by Industry (ANBERD)


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