Industry and globalisation

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2009: Italy Highlights

 

Financing Innovation

Innovation expenditures in Italy appear significantly below the OECD average. In 2007, total R&D amounted to only 1.1% of GDP, a half of the G7 average (2.2%). Italian businesses finance only 40% of total R&D expenditures, against an average of 53% for OECD countries. Participation of business in university and public research activities is the second-lowest among G7 countries whereas government financing of business R&D is above the OECD average. The level of venture capital is among the lowest in the OECD.

>> Download all the charts and data in Excel (figures from 2005 - 2008)

 

Targeting New Growth Areas

In 2005-07 Italy had the lowest number of patents per capita (13 per million inhabitants) among G7 countries and one of the lowest in the OECD area. Patents show a relative specialization in health and environmental technologies and a relative despecialization in nanotechnologies. In 2008, the percentage of individuals with a broadband connection (19%) was the lowest among G7 countries.

Competing in the World Economy

Over 1998-2008, the rate of labour productivity growth in Italy (0.4%) was the lowest among OECD countries. In 2007, the trade balance for high technology goods, including ICT goods, showed a significant deficit (-3.2% of manufacturing trade).

Compared to the OECD, Italian firms do little use of e-commerce, both for selling (3%) and purchasing (12%). The number of new trademarks per capita - an indicator of new products and new marketing methods - was also lower (37 per million inhabitants) than the OECD average (62).

Both the inflows and the outflows of foreign direct investments remained low in 2008.

Connecting to Global Research

International co-patenting – two or more inventors from different countries - and cross-border patents – the “owner” and the inventor from different countries - suggest that the involvement of Italy in international research activities is low. International and cross-border patents account for 14% and 7% of Italian patents, respectively, while the OECD average is above 20% for both indicators. Similarly, the technological balance of payments registers small technological inflow and outflows. The international attractiveness of Italian universities appears low, as shown by the lowest rate of foreign doctoral students (5%) among G7 countries.

 

Investing in the Knowledge Economy

Italy’s educational performances appear in line with OECD countries. Graduation rates for men are slightly above the average while doctoral graduation rates slightly below. New doctoral degrees in science and engineering represent a higher share (45%). This evidence may be linked to the wage premium from tertiary education, which in Italy remains slightly higher than for the OECD average.

 

 

Related Documents

 

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2007

 

Countries list

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China (People’s Republic of)
  • Chinese Taipei
  • Colombia
  • Comoros
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • European Union
  • Faeroe Islands
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong, China
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kiribati
  • Korea
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macao (China)
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Micronesia (Federated States of)
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nauru
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestinian Administered Areas
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Romania
  • Russian Federation
  • Rwanda
  • Saint Helena
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Samoa
  • San Marino
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Serbia and Montenegro (pre-June 2006)
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • South Sudan
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syrian Arab Republic
  • Tajikistan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Timor-Leste
  • Togo
  • Tokelau
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Tuvalu
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • United States Virgin Islands
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Virgin Islands (UK)
  • Wallis and Futuna Islands
  • Western Sahara
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe