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In Italy, there are two main categories of nurses requiring a university bachelor’s degree: Registered Nurses (RN) and Registered Paediatric Nurses (RPN). Once a Registered Nurse or a RPN, nurses can pursue further education in the form of a Master’s or Doctoral degree, which is more oriented towards an academic career.
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In France, there is only one main category of nurses. Following the 2009 reform, nursing education has moved from vocational programmes to higher education (university) programmes, with a requirement for nurses to obtain a Bachelor degree to align these educational requirements with other European countries.
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To become a doctor in the UK, on average, a student can expect between 10 to 15 years of university education and post-graduate training.
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In Australia, there are two main categories for nurses: Enrolled Nurses (EN) (who, after an additional 6 months of studies, can become Endorsed Enrolled Nurses (EEN)) and Registered Nurses (RN). Graduates from RN programmes can pursue further education and training to become Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) or Nurse Practitioners (NP).
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In Canada, there are three main categories for nurses: Licenced Practice Nurses (LPNs), Registered Nurses (RNs) and Registered Psychiatric Nurses (RPNs). In addition, registered nurses can pursue further education to become Clinical Nurse Specialists and/or Nurse Practitioners.
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New medical graduates then pursue their clinical specialty training (internship/residency), with the length of the training varying depending on the specialty. Overall, to become a doctor in the US, on average, a student can expect 10 to 16 years of higher education and post-graduate training.
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The Ministry of Health is responsible for post-graduate medical training and determining the number of positions available. Once registered with the Physicians Association, application for post-graduate training is possible. The funding for post-graduate training comes from the National Health Service budget.
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Entry to medical education in Italy follows the completion of high-school education and the grades obtained in a national exam, and it is subject to a numerus clausus (i.e., annual quota) set by the Ministry of Education, University and Research. It takes about six years for students to complete the first medical degree.
Despite remarkable progress in health status and life expectancy in OECD countries over the past decades, there remain large inequalities not only across countries, but also across population groups within each country. These inequalities in health status are linked to many factors, including differences in exposure to risk factors to health and in access to health care.
Mental disorders account for one of the largest and fastest growing categories of the burden of disease with which health systems must cope, often accounting for a greater burden than cardiovascular disease and cancer.