The OECD and the ESRC Genomics Policy & Research Forum jointly organised a one-day Forum on 12 November 2012 in Paris. The event was both retrospective and forward-looking. The forum concluded that the promise of biotechnology is not set but evolves with fresh scientific knowledge, novel laws and regulations. The future of biotechnology needs to also integrate social and cultural dimensions.
Each year about 1.3 million people are killed and another 50 million people are injured on roads worldwide. These road crashes cost countries between 1 and 3 percent of their GDP. Many of these crashes can be prevented by effective countermeasures. This report helps identify the most effective safety countermeasures.
Policy makers need to justify expenditure on road safety in terms of effectiveness, competing for the scarce resources available. The risk of making poor decisions and the cost of making better decisions can be reduced by the use of reliable studies on how effective safety measures are, based on Crash Modification Functions (CMFs). This report shows that there is a prospect for significant advances and major cost savings through the transfer of results internationally, allowing for more rapid adoption and dissemination of new life-saving safety measures.
The report serves as a guide to how research results can be shared internationally. It provides checklist for systematic review of road safety studies and a framework for standardising methodology.
The report targets the road safety research community but will also find an audience among policy makers at all levels of government. The report highlights the value of Crash Modification Functions and the importance of ensuring practicioners use the best CMFs available.
At a time when ever more information is available about the quality of health care, the challenge for policy makers is to better understand the policies and approaches that sit behind the numbers. This book examines whether care in Israel is safe, effective and responsive to patients’ needs. It examines what works and what does not work, both to benchmark the efforts of countries and to provide advice on reforms to improve quality of health care.
Israel has world class-primary care services and should now focus efforts on bringing its hospitals up to the same high international standards, according to the OECD’s Health Care Quality Review of Israel.
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This project aims to develop guidelines for compiling such estimates of expenditure by disease categories, and age and gender groups under the SHA framework.
Aid plays an important role in reducing poverty and inequality, stimulating growth, building capacity, promoting human development and accelerating the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Effective aid is critical both to maximise the impact of aid and to achieve long-term, sustainable development.
Aid to the health sector has increased substantially over the last 20 years from USD 5 billion in 1990 to USD 21.8 billion in 2007. Consisting of a growing and diverse range of actors, aid to the health sector faces complex governance and management challenges: for example, donors inadvertedly invest in duplicate and fragmented efforts, while partners are unable to take full responsibility and leadership. By reviewing these challenges against the aid effectiveness principles outlined in the landmark 2005 Paris Declaration and 2008 Accra Agenda for Action, this report provides insight and expounds lessons from the health sector to the broader challenges of aid effectiveness. Health, then, is used as a “tracer” sector to help assess the risks and benefits of the diverse range of actors, and promote co-ordination and coherence among development programmes.
This work is the result of a collaboration between the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness – an inclusive, international forum with the aim of improving aid delivery – through its Task Team on Health as a Tracer Sector and the World Trade Organization.
Walking is the most natural form of mobility; however cities have not always evolved to accommodate the needs of pedestrians and walking has in many cases been neglected in the development of transport systems. Improving the pedestrian environment can contribute significantly to meeting the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health.
This report aims to present decision-makers with hard evidence on the important place of walking in transport policies and provide guidelines for developing a safe environment conducive to walking. This is an essential contribution to creating liveable cities. Every single trip begins and ends by walking.
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The obesity epidemic slowed down in several OECD countries during the past three years. Rates grew less that previously projected, or did not grow at all, according to new data from ten OECD countries. However, rates remain high and social disparities in obesity are unabated.
Growth in health spending slowed or fell in real terms in 2010 in almost all OECD countries, reversing a long-term trend of rapid increases, according to OECD Health Data 2012.