Environmental policy tools and evaluation


  • OECD on the Road to #COP21

    World leaders are facing a fundamental dilemma: take strong action to address the risks associated with climate change, or see the ability to limit this threat slip from their grasp. Check out how the OECD is contributing to get a successful outcome in December at #COP21 in Paris.

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  • Taxing Energy Use

    Governments are under-utilising taxation as a tool to curb the environmental consequences of energy use, foregoing revenue and weakening their attack on the principal source of greenhouse gas emissions responsible for climate change and air pollution, according to new OECD analysis.

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  • Cost of air pollution: Health impacts

    This report estimates the economic cost of the health impacts of air pollution from road transport – on a global scale, but with special reference to People’s Republic of China, India and the OECD member countries.

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Ongoing empirical work sheds light on the economic effects of environmental policies.

Environmental taxation Trading systems Carbon pricing
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Provides major environmental benefits and raises significant tax revenue.


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Cost-effective policy tools, with a predefined environmental outcome.

Trading systems

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Costs to society per unit of carbon abatement that different policy instruments cause.


 Mortality impacts Morbidity impacts
Cost-benefit analysis
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For many environmental policies, changes in human mortality will be the impact with the largest economic value.

Mortality impacts

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Changes in human illnesses can be an important outcome of many environmental policies.

Morbidity impacts

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Comparing costs and benefits, including environmental impacts, is important for all aspects of policy making.


Policy reform Behavioural and experimental economics  
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Implementing major environmental
policy reforms requires overcoming
many different potential obstacles.


Policy reform

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Insights from behavioural economics can contribute
to the design of more effective environmental policies.