Improving the environmental performance of agriculture is a high priority for OECD countries. But measuring and evaluating the impact of agri-environmental policies on the environment can be challenging, as it requires linking economic and biophysical models in country-specific contexts.
The OECD has developed the Stylised Agri-environmental Policy Impact Model (SAPIM), which can be adapted and applied by researchers and policy makers to better understand the impact of policies on the agri-environment conditions in their countries.
This report applies the model to representative farms in Finland, Japan, Switzerland and the United States. These countries include a wide range of objectives, policy measures and agri-environmental conditions. The results highlight that when positive or negative environmental externalities are not taken into account by farmers then the production choices by farmers will reflect private costs and benefits. Policies can potentially raise social welfare by taking account of those externalities.
This report notes that, overall, the diversity of conditions across sectors and countries makes it difficult to generalise the impact of agri-environmental policies beyond the situations that are modeled. Nevertheless, some wider policy messages emerge. Drawing on the four case studies examined, this report recommends that; polluting activites that are not regulated should be included in policy design; the existing overall policy environment needs to be taken into account in evaluating agri-environmental policies; and environmental co-benefits and trade-offs need to be recognised.
Green growth policies can stimulate economic growth while preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and unsustainable natural resource use. The results from this publication contribute to the Green Growth Strategy being developed by the OECD as a practical policy package for governments to harness the potential of greener growth.
The OECD Stylised Agri-environmental Policy Impact Model (SAPIM) measures and evaluates the impact of agricultural policies on the environment. This report applies the SAPIM model to farms in Finland, Japan, Switzerland and the United States.
Workshop on Green Growth Strategy: OECD Green Growth Strategy from the Perspective of Developing Countries, organised in Seoul, 28 October 2010.
The Database is freely accessible online via the IEA website. Visitors can search for information according to country, policy instrument, renewable energy technology, renewable energy target and other criteria.
English, , 1,220kb
The Green Growth Strategy will provide policy recommendations and practical tools to help OECD and partner countries identify how to move efficiently toward greener growth.
The oil price hike in 2007-08 underlined the vulnerability of Indonesia’s energy subsidy policy to oil price volatility. In addition to entailing significant economic and environmental costs, energy subsidies put pressure on the public budget and benefit mostly rich households.
The consensus view of scientists is that the build-up of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere is causing global warming. To reduce the probability of severe climate change impacts and costs occurring, global GHG emissions need to be reduced substantially over coming decades.
By putting a price on pollution, do environmentally related taxes spur innovation? Does the design of the tax play a critical role? What is the effect of this innovation? In analysing these questions, the report draws on case studies that cover Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Israel and others. It also covers a wide set of environmental issues and technologies, as well as the economic and policy contexts.
Chinese, , 992kb
English, Excel, 120kb
In addition to the work on Globalisation, Transport and the Environment (see www.oecd.org/env/transport/globalisation), OECD has in recent years issued a number of other documents on transport and environment.