This working paper provides evidence on the generation and international diffusion of selected climate change mitigation technologies (CCMTs) and their respective links to key policies.
Governments around the world are increasingly intervening in automobile markets to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of CO2 from new vehicles. This report reviews the rationale for such intervention and examines measures for maximum effectiveness and minimum cost.
The Round Table brought together economists, policy makers and auto engineers with the aim of advancing understanding of why car markets currently fail to deliver sufficient fuel economy. It started by questioning whether any additional measures would be necessary once an appropriate price for carbon dioxide is established via fuel taxes. It confirmed that there are indeed market imperfections that merit additional government intervention. Fuel economy and CO2 regulations are an essential part of the package. The key to maximising the benefits of such regulations is long-term planning. The longer the timeframe, the less industry investment is handicapped by uncertainty.
Subsidies to electric vehicles are more problematic because of the risks of prematurely picking winning technologies and creating subsidy dependence. And electricity production has yet to be decarbonised. However, intervention to steer innovation in this direction is merited so long as the risks of not attaining climate policy targets are seen as higher than the risks of intervention.
In his remarks, A. Gurría said that countries need to be ambitious in taking unilateral actions and that a cost-effective approach to reducing emissions could cost just a fraction of a percentage point of GDP per year.
OECD’s modelling work supports governments in identifying least-cost policies or policy mixes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assesses the cost and impacts of possible post-2012 international frameworks.
“We must be able to grow our economy in ways that the earth can sustain. That means growth without carbon and using the earth’s amazing larder of natural resources in ways that keep ecosystems healthy.” says WWF chief James P. Leape
Is the value of reducing environment-related health risks greater for children than for adults? A research project involving leading research teams has sought to answer this question through the implementation of surveys of parents in three OECD countries.
As the hubs of economic activity, cities drive the vast majority of the world’s energy use and are major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Because they are home to major infrastructure and highly concentrated populations, cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as rising sea levels, warmer temperatures and fiercer storms. At the same time, better urban planning and policies can reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and improve the resilience of urban infrastructure to climate change, thus shaping future trends.
This book shows how city and metropolitan regional governments working in tandem with national governments can change the way we think about responding to climate change. The chapters analyse: trends in urbanisation, economic growth, energy use and climate change; the economic benefits of climate action; the role of urban policies in reducing energy demand, improving resilience to climate change and complementing global climate policies; frameworks for multilevel governance of climate change including engagement with relevant stakeholders; and the contribution of cities to “green growth”, including the “greening” of fiscal policies, innovation and jobs. The book also explores policy tools and best practices from both OECD and some non-member countries.
Cities and Climate Change reveals the importance of addressing climate change across all levels of government. Local involvement through “climate-conscious” urban planning and management can help achieve national climate goals and minimise tradeoffs between environmental and economic priorities at local levels. The book will be relevant to policy makers, researchers, and others with an interest in learning more about urbanisation and climate change policy.
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La Estrategia de Crecimiento Verde proporcionará recomendaciones de política pública y herramientas prácticas para ayudar a la OCDE y a los países socios a identificar cómo avanzar de manera eficiente hacia un crecimiento más ecológico.
As world economies become more integrated, economic growth has created environmental problems that demand global solutions.
The focus of OECD work will be to identify policies which will help the agricultural sector to meet green growth objectives while ensuring increased food supplies.