Publications & Documents


  • 15-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Norway 2011

    The International Energy Agency's 2011 comprehensive review of Norways energy policies and programmes. The review finds that Norway has a unique twin role as a major oil and gas producer and a strong global advocate of climate change mitigation. As the third-largest exporter of energy in the world, it contributes to global energy security by providing reliable supplies to consuming countries. At the same time, the Norwegians highly value environmental sustainability and the country is taking climate policy very seriously. Norway also manages its petroleum resources and revenue in a commendable way, setting a model for other countries. The challenge now for the government is to stimulate further increases in natural gas and petroleum production from safe and environmentally sustainable operations.  

    Norway’s large potential for hydropower generation is an asset, as European electricity markets are integrating and variable renewable energy generation is set to increase. More cross-border interconnections are needed to realise the full potential of hydropower for balancing variations in demand and supply in the regional market. Increased interconnections would also improve electricity security in Norway in times of low hydropower availability. Gas-fired power plants should also be considered for use for the same purpose. 

    In order to meet its ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Norway needs to step up efforts at home. Although the dominance of low-carbon electricity in the energy mix limits the scope for domestic measures, large potential for emission reductions remains in oil and gas production, manufacturing and transport. However, measures to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy should be carefully designed, because they often focus on electricity and would thus not reduce emissions. Recent large increases in spending on energy RD&D and ongoing efforts to develop carbon capture and storage are very welcome.

  • 15-March-2011

    English

    Better Policies to Support Eco-innovation

    This report reviews policies in OECD countries. It studies selected eco-innovations (e.g. carbon capture and storage, electric vehicles and fuel cells) and explains why policies differ in Canada, France, or Germany.

  • 2-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland 2011

    The International Energy Agency's comprehensive 2011 review Poland's energy policies and programmes.  The review finds that Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D).

    Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Polandfs energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Polandfs power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Polandfs efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the countryfs energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The governmentfs attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Polandfs potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place.

    This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 1-March-2011

    English

    OECD Observer - Fostering an ecosystem of innovation

    One area where governments have been looking to raise revenues is green taxes. And with good reason. Taxes can provide a clear incentive to reduce environmental damage.

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  • 1-March-2011

    English

    OECD Observer - Green tax potential

    One area where governments have been looking to raise revenues is green taxes. And with good reason. Taxes can provide a clear incentive to reduce environmental damage.

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  • 1-March-2011

    English

    Interaction of Policies for Renewable Energy and Climate

    This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments.

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  • 1-March-2011

    English

    OECD Observer - New growth doesn't have to cost the earth

    WWF's 2010 Living Planet Report demonstrates that we are currently using 50% more resources than earth can provide. If we allow current trends to continue, by 2030 we will need two planets to support us. It's clear that 'business-as-usual' is not the pathway to a prosperous future.

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  • 1-March-2011

    English

    OECD Observer - 50 years of reconciling the economy, nature and society

    The OECD's capacity for change, inspired more by professional pathfinding than by politics, has transformed it into a multi-disciplinary policy innovator that can continue to build signposts for the future.

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  • 1-March-2011

    English

    OECD Observer - City Growth

    There is growth potential in agriculture, and not just in the countryside. In fact, encouraging large-scale urbal agriculture would plant the seeds of new growth and improve people's lives as well.

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  • 1-March-2011

    English

    OECD Observer - Tapping new sources of growth

    The OECD's capacity for change, inspired more by professional pathfinding than by politics, has transformed it into a multi-disciplinary policy innovator that can continue to build signposts for the future.

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