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The oil price hike in 2007-08 underlined the vulnerability of Indonesia’s energy subsidy policy to oil price volatility. In addition to entailing significant economic and environmental costs, energy subsidies put pressure on the public budget and benefit mostly rich households.
The consensus view of scientists is that the build-up of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere is causing global warming. To reduce the probability of severe climate change impacts and costs occurring, global GHG emissions need to be reduced substantially over coming decades.
By putting a price on pollution, do environmentally related taxes spur innovation? What types of innovation result? Does the design of the tax play a critical role? What is the effect of this innovation? This publication also explores the use of environmentally related taxes in OECD countries.&l
Chinese, , 992kb
English, Excel, 120kb
In addition to the work on Globalisation, Transport and the Environment (see www.oecd.org/env/transport/globalisation), OECD has in recent years issued a number of other documents on transport and environment.
Sustainable development is a key theme in policy making in Norway. Norway can and should follow through more strongly the logic of its pioneering use of economic incentives to further sustainability goals.
Congestion has become a burden for the Dutch economy. Reforms to the transport system, including public transport, together with a more flexible housing market should reduce the economic and environmental burden of transport, thereby improving prospects for sustainable long term growth.
On 11-12 October, the OECD Environment Directorate hosted a meeting of the governing body of the International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE).
Portugal has made significant progress in modernising its economy over recent years but the country needs to further pursue structural reforms to restore competitiveness and thus move to more dynamic and sustainable growth.
As part of the project “Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: the role of ports”, this case study focuses on the way the port of metro Vancouver and the Canadian authorities address the environmental impacts of the port and its interactions with the hinterlands.