Globalisation has brought about large increases in transport volumes over the last few decades – especially as regards international shipping and aviation. In order to analyse the environmental impacts of these changes in transport activity levels, OECD held a Global Forum on Transport and Environment in Mexico in November 2008. Papers prepared for that forum have been edited, updated and brought together in a recent book on Globalisation, Transport and the Environment.
The Global Forum also addressed the major challenges that many countries face related to urban transport, with one paper on the political obstacles to optimise urban transport policies and another paper discussing ways to limit traffic of light-duty vehicles.
Many OECD countries have started differentiating taxes on motor vehicles according to the CO2 emissions the vehicles are likely to cause per km driven. OECD has analysed the arguments for using such tax rate differentiation, and compared the different tax rates that currently are being used.
Related to the environmental impacts caused by maritime shipping are the environmental impacts of major sea ports – and of the interactions between the ports and their hinterland. An OECD project has analysed these impacts, drawing on a number of case studies: Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: The Role of Ports.