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The oil price hike in 2007-08 underlined the vulnerability of Indonesia’s energy subsidy policy to oil price volatility. In addition to entailing significant economic and environmental costs, energy subsidies put pressure on the public budget and benefit mostly rich households.
- Economic Survey of Indonesia 2010
The consensus view of scientists is that the build-up of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere is causing global warming. To reduce the probability of severe climate change impacts and costs occurring, global GHG emissions need to be reduced substantially over coming decades.
- Economic Survey of the United States 2010
Sustainable development is a key theme in policy making in Norway. Norway can and should follow through more strongly the logic of its pioneering use of economic incentives to further sustainability goals.
- Economic Survey of Norway 2010
Congestion has become a burden for the Dutch economy. Reforms to the transport system, including public transport, together with a more flexible housing market should reduce the economic and environmental burden of transport, thereby improving prospects for sustainable long term growth.
- Economic Survey of the Netherlands 2010
Korea’s greenhouse gas emissions almost doubled between 1990 and 2005, the highest growth rate in the OECD area.
- Economic Survey of Korea 2010
Concern that unilateral greenhouse gas emission reductions could foster carbon leakage and undermine the international competitiveness of domestic industry has led to growing calls for carbon-based border-tax adjustments (BTAs).
European energy policy faces a number of interrelated challenges, including making the transition to a low–carbon economy, increasing cross–border competition in electricity and gas markets and diversifying Europe’s energy supply.
- Economic Survey of the European Union 2009
This paper proposes an analytical framework for assessing policies that will contribute to a better integration of environmental externalities in the pursuit of economic efficiency and growth objectives.
Sustainable development has a key place in Norway’s policy objectives. Norway can refine its indicators, and extend the use of economic incentives and evaluation in climate change and fisheries policy.
Japan, a relatively energy-efficient country, has been active in combating climate change. Under the Kyoto Protocol, Japan is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% relative to 1990 over the period 2008-12.
- Economic Survey of Japan 2009