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Quoting a joint analysis made by the OECD and the IEA, G20 Leaders committed in September 2009 to “rationalize and phase out over the medium term inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption”.
Sweden has developed an extensive and sound policy framework to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
- Economic Survey of Sweden 2011
The limits for extraction of natural resources have largely been reached and climate change is expected to continue lowering natural water endowments markedly in future especially in dry areas of the country
OECD’s modelling work supports governments in identifying least-cost policies or policy mixes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assesses the cost and impacts of possible post-2012 international frameworks.
The oil price hike in 2007-08 underlined the vulnerability of Indonesia’s energy subsidy policy to oil price volatility. In addition to entailing significant economic and environmental costs, energy subsidies put pressure on the public budget and benefit mostly rich households.
- Economic Survey of Indonesia 2010
The consensus view of scientists is that the build-up of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere is causing global warming. To reduce the probability of severe climate change impacts and costs occurring, global GHG emissions need to be reduced substantially over coming decades.
- Economic Survey of the United States 2010
Sustainable development is a key theme in policy making in Norway. Norway can and should follow through more strongly the logic of its pioneering use of economic incentives to further sustainability goals.
- Economic Survey of Norway 2010
Congestion has become a burden for the Dutch economy. Reforms to the transport system, including public transport, together with a more flexible housing market should reduce the economic and environmental burden of transport, thereby improving prospects for sustainable long term growth.
- Economic Survey of the Netherlands 2010
Korea’s greenhouse gas emissions almost doubled between 1990 and 2005, the highest growth rate in the OECD area.
- Economic Survey of Korea 2010
Concern that unilateral greenhouse gas emission reductions could foster carbon leakage and undermine the international competitiveness of domestic industry has led to growing calls for carbon-based border-tax adjustments (BTAs).