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Congestion has become a burden for the Dutch economy. Reforms to the transport system, including public transport, together with a more flexible housing market should reduce the economic and environmental burden of transport, thereby improving prospects for sustainable long term growth.
Portugal has made significant progress in modernising its economy over recent years but the country needs to further pursue structural reforms to restore competitiveness and thus move to more dynamic and sustainable growth.
The economy is recovering from an externally driven recession. Public spending growth must be restrained as planned starting in 2011 to put public finances onto a sustainable path, including in the health sector where efficiency gains and quality improvements are possible.
Korea’s greenhouse gas emissions almost doubled between 1990 and 2005, the highest growth rate in the OECD area.
Concern that unilateral greenhouse gas emission reductions could foster carbon leakage and undermine the international competitiveness of domestic industry has led to growing calls for carbon-based border-tax adjustments (BTAs).
The South African economy is recovering from the crisis. Nevertheless deep structural reforms are necessary. The already strong macroeconomic policy framework should be further strengthened to resist excessive real appreciation.
European energy policy faces a number of interrelated challenges, including making the transition to a low–carbon economy, increasing cross–border competition in electricity and gas markets and diversifying Europe’s energy supply.
This paper proposes an analytical framework for assessing policies that will contribute to a better integration of environmental externalities in the pursuit of economic efficiency and growth objectives.
Sustainable development has a key place in Norway’s policy objectives. Norway can refine its indicators, and extend the use of economic incentives and evaluation in climate change and fisheries policy.
Israel has an impressive high-tech sector, low inflation and has weathered the downturn well but faces profound fiscal and socio-economic challenges.