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Public finances are shifting further away from fiscal sustainability, emphasising the need for the reform of the fiscal policy making and strategies to deal with the costs of ageing.
This pilot study presents indicators that assess sub-central government (SCG) spending power by policy area. Traditional indicators are often misleading as they underestimate the impact of central government regulation on sub-central spending patterns.
The tax system is relying too much on relatively growth distorting taxes. Despite reforms, labour taxation continues to contribute to substantial labour market traps while corporate tax rates are relatively high. Moreover, most tax bases are narrowed by numerous exemptions and reductions.
To investigate the possible impact of terms of trade gains on the real economy, this paper estimates normalised quadratic input demand and output supply functions for the Brazilian economy during 1997-2008.
To shed further light on this issue in the context of emerging market economies, this paper uses Brazilian data to estimate the determinants of the current account in a smooth transition vector autoregressive (ST VAR) setting.
Austria entered the most severe recession in decades. This triggered prompt policy measures to stabilise the real economy and financial markets, which will deteriorate significantly the fiscal position.
As in most other OECD countries, the fiscal situation in the UK has deteriorated sharply. While to date the discretionary fiscal stimulus has been relatively modest, after around the turn of the century the underlying fiscal position weakened more than anticipated. While there was some subsequent improvement, particularly in tax receipts, the severe impact of the downturn on the public finances and the borrowing related to the rescue
Italy is suffering a serious economic recession, which started earlier than elsewhere but has now accelerated following the downturn elsewhere and collapse in world trade.
The costs of the recession and ageing are a challenge to fiscal sustainability. The estimated fiscal sustainability gap has increased from 3 to 8% of GDP due to a sizeable permanent stimulus and lower potential output. A consolidation plan should be articulated now...
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Fiscal equalisation is a transfer of fiscal resources across jurisdictions to offset disparities in revenue raising capacity or public service cost. It covers on average 2.5% of GDP or 5% of total government expenditure across OECD countries.