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Anti-corruption and integrity in the public sector

Lobbying

 

A DEMOCRATIC RIGHT

  • Lobbying is a democratic right that can inform government with valuable insights and data
  • Lobbying allows citizens and interest groups to present their views on public decisions.

HOWEVER

  • Lobbying can also lead to unfair advantages for vested interests
  • Lobbying is also associated with secrecy and unfair advantage.
  • Public interest is at risk when negotiations are carried out behind closed doors.
  • Public pressure is rising worldwide to put lobbying regulation on the political agenda.

TRANSPARENCY, INTEGRITY AND FAIRNESS

  • Transparency, integrity and fairness in the decision-making process are crucial to safeguard public interest.
  • Opinion polls across the world show that public trust in government is declining.
  • Regulating lobbying has proven difficult due to its complexity and sensitive nature.
  • Many OECD countries rely on self-regulation of lobbyists.
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10 LOBBYING PRINCIPLES

  • Download the guidance for decision-makers on how to promote good governance in lobbying.

COALITION OF INFLUENCERS

The Coalition welcomes stakeholders from government, business, academia and civil society working on integrity in decision-making related issues. It is designed to serve as an inclusive and non-discriminatory platform to constructively examine the tools and effects of vested interests’ influence on public policy.

 

INFLUENCE AND INTEGRITY IN POLICY-MAKING

Influencing policy-makers is a core part of a democratic system. Lobbyists and advocacy groups bring valuable information to the policy debate. In practice, however, powerful groups can exert influence to further their particular interests, often at the expense of the public interest. 


TIMELINE OF LOBBYING REGULATIONS

 

Lobbying infographic


OECD SERIES ON LOBBYISTS, GOVERNMENT & PUBLIC TRUST

Volume 1 - Increasing Transparency through Legislation reviews the experiences of Australia, Canada, Hungary, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States with government regulations designed to increase scrutiny for lobbying and lobbyists.

The report provides an analysis of current approaches, models, trends and solutions to better understand the potential and limitations of existing norms.‪ ‪

It also presents elements for developing a framework for lobbying that meets public expectations for transparency, accountability and integrity.

  Volume 2 - Promoting Integrity through Self-Regulation examines regulation and self-regulation of lobbying.

The report defines and examines lobbying, describes the role of professional lobbying associations, explores various codes of conduct, examines lobbyists' attitudes toward regulation and self-regulation, and explores options for enhancing transparency and accountability. 

It also includes the results of a survey of lobbyists' attitude in Europe that highlight how existing measures function.

 

Volume 3 - Implementing the OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying takes stock of progress made in implementing the 2010 Recommendation on Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying – the only international instrument addressing major risks in the public decision-making process related to lobbying.

The review process found that although there is an emerging consensus on the need for transparency to shed light on lobbying, new regulations are often scandal-driven instead of forward looking.

 


REGULATIONS AND CODES OF CONDUCT IN SELECTED COUNTRIES

Australia: Lobbying Code of Conduct and Register of Lobbyists (2008)

Austria: Lobbying and advocacy transparency law (2012)

Canada: Lobbying Act (2008)

Chile: Ley núm. 20.730 Regula el lobby y las gestiones que representen intereses particulares ante las autoridades y funcionarios (2014)

France: Senate Code of Conduct for Lobbyists and Code de conduite applicable aux représentants d’intérêts; the National Assembly Code de conduite applicable aux représentants d’intérêts (2013)  

Germany: Annex 2 “Registration of associations” of the Bundestag’s Rules of procedure 

Hungary: Government regulation of the integrity management system of state administration bodies and lobbyists (Magyar Közlöny 30. Szám (2013. február 25.) 50/2013. (II. 25.) Korm. rendelet)  

Israel: Knesset Law (Amendment No. 25), 2008

Mexico: Reglamento del Senado de la República (Senate) and Reglamento de la Cámara de Diputados (House of Representatives) (2010)

Netherlands: Lobbyist Registry (2012) 

Poland: Act on Lobbying (2005) and the amendment (2011)

Slovenia: Integrity and Prevention of Corruption Act(2010) and the Registry

United Kingdom: Transparency of Lobbying, Non-Party Campaigning and Trade Union Administration Act (2014)

United States: Lobbying Disclosure Act (1995)

 

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Country perspectives (external articles)

 

 

For more information about Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying please contact the OECD Public Sector Integrity Division at GOVintegrity@oecd.org.

 

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