Fighting corruption in the public sector




  • Lobbying is a democratic right that can inform government with valuable insights and data

  • Lobbying allows citizens and interest groups to present their views on public decisions.



  • Lobbying can also lead to unfair advantages for vested interests

  • Lobbying is also associated with secrecy and unfair advantage.

  • Public interest is at risk when negotiations are carried out behind closed doors.

  • Public pressure is rising worldwide to put lobbying regulation on the political agenda.




  • Transparency, integrity and fairness in the decision-making process are crucial to safeguard public interest.

  • Opinion polls across the world show that public trust in government is declining.

  • Regulating lobbying has proven difficult due to its complexity and sensitive nature.

  • Many OECD countries rely on self-regulation of lobbyists.


Lobbying - Financing Democracy 56x56

Report takes stock of progress made in implementing the Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying (Vol 3 of the series)


Lobbying principles - Financing Democracy 56x56

Guidance for decision-makers on how to promote good governance in lobbying.










The report "Lobbyists, Government and Public Trust, Volume 1" reviews the experiences of Australia, Canada, Hungary, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States with government regulations designed to increase scrutiny for lobbying and lobbyists.


Current approaches, models, trends and state-of-the-art solutions are examined to support a deeper understanding of the potential and limitations of existing norms.‪ ‪


The report also presents building blocks for developing a framework for lobbying that meets public expectations for transparency, accountability and integrity.


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The report "Lobbyists, Government and Public Trust, Volume 2" examines regulation and self-regulation of lobbying.


The report includes chapters defining and examining lobbying, describing the role of professional lobbying associations, exploring various codes of conduct and examining specific codes in various countries, examining lobbyists' attitudes toward regulation and self-regulation, and exploring various options for enhancing transparency and accountability. 


The report also includes the results of a unique survey of lobbyists' attitude in Europe that highlight howexisting measures function.

See also


Country perspectives (external articles)


  Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 2 | OECD Free preview | Powered by Keepeek Digital Asset Management Solution
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Timeline of lobbying regulations


Lobbying infographic

 Source: OECD

 Regulations and codes of conduct in selected countries

Australia: Lobbying Code of Conduct and Register of Lobbyists (2008)


Austria: Lobbying and advocacy transparency law (2012)


Canada: Lobbying Act (2008)

Chile: Ley núm. 20.730 Regula el lobby y las gestiones que representen intereses particulares ante las autoridades y funcionarios (2014)


France: Senate Code of Conduct for Lobbyists and Code de conduite applicable aux représentants d’intérêts; the National Assembly Code de conduite applicable aux représentants d’intérêts (2013)  


Germany: Annex 2 “Registration of associations” of the Bundestag’s Rules of procedure 


Hungary: Government regulation of the integrity management system of state administration bodies and lobbyists (Magyar Közlöny 30. Szám (2013. február 25.) 50/2013. (II. 25.) Korm. rendelet)  


Israel: Knesset Law (Amendment No. 25), 2008


Mexico: Reglamento del Senado de la República (Senate) and Reglamento de la Cámara de Diputados (House of Representatives) (2010)


Netherlands: Lobbyist Registry (2012) 


Poland: Act on Lobbying (2005) and the amendment (2011)


Slovenia: Integrity and Prevention of Corruption Act(2010) and the Registry


United Kingdom: Transparency of Lobbying, Non-Party Campaigning and Trade Union Administration Act (2014)


United States: Lobbying Disclosure Act (1995)


For more information about Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying please contact the OECD Integrity Unit at


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