This report assesses the state of Armenia’s sanitation services, which are in poor shape, and proposes ways forward for reforming the sector by: ensuring equitable access by all and identifying solutions that work for the poorest and most remote communities; generating economies of scale and scope, and reducing both investment and operational costs for the efficient delivery of sanitation services; and moving towards sustainable cost recovery for the sanitation sector, by identifying how much funding can be mobilised from within the sector and how much external transfers are required. The state of Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate, with 51% of the population in rural areas using unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks, and better access but degraded sewerage-system infrastructure in urban areas, posing health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water. According to preliminary estimates, EUR 2.6 billion of investments will be required to meet Armenia’s sanitation needs, with approximately EUR 1 billion needing to be spent in the next 7 to 10 years. Given the country’s current economic situation, this investment will have to be spread over time and targeted to avoid further deterioration of infrastructure and increase of the financing gap.
This review of Corporate Governance in Colombia was prepared as part of the process of Colombia's accession to OECD Membership. The report describes the corporate governance setting for both listed companies and the state-owned sector (SOEs). The review then examines the legal and regulatory framework and company practices to assess the degree to which the recommendations of the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises have been implemented. The review finds that Colombia's framework for the corporate governance of listed companies is largely consistent with the Principles, although some companies have been reluctant to implement some of the good practices recommended in Colombia's national corporate governance code. For SOEs, the report recognises substantial reforms undertaken during the review process to adopt an ambitious national ownership policy. Reforms have included establishing an ownership co-ordination unit and more transparent reporting on SOE performance, and removing ministers from SOE boards and establishing more transparent board nomination processes aimed at enhancing the qualifications of board members. The report seeks continuing efforts to consolidate these reforms and to implement plans announced in the national ownership policy.
The report, building on a policy dialogue with a range of stakeholders in Korea, analyses how economic policy instruments under the responsibility of the Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport can be adjusted to contribute to water policy objectives. It also investigates how Smart Water Management Korea, an initiative by K-water that combines information and communication technology with water technology, can be harnessed to better contribute to water management in the country. Finally, it identifies some of the limitations of prevalent water allocation regimes which need to be addressed to make the best use of available water resources.
Since 1965, the Korean Government has invested heavily in quantitative development strategies to meet water needs, and despite highly variable water availability, this has allowed for and facilitated rapid urbanisation and economic growth. However, several long-term trends are expected to affect the capacity of the current water management system to adequately respond to current and future water risks, such as rapid ageing of the population, fiscal consolidation and climate change. These call for a renewed emphasis on water use efficiency.
The 2017 edition of the OECD E-Leaders meeting will discuss how governments can best adapt to the growing role of advanced technologies in service delivery. Delegates will discuss the implications of the digital transformation in governments, including the skills base, the data infrastructure and approaches to the commissioning of ICT goods and services.
Public procurement is becoming a strategic tool in Peru for achieving key policy objectives. The legislative reforms enacted in 2016 indicate a strong commitment from the government to modernise the public procurement system. In fact, the system is currently going through a transitional period, moving from excessive formalities and complex tendering processes to prioritizing results and value for money. This report examines ongoing public procurement reforms in Peru, focusing on issues such as procurement processes, participation in tenders, and the culture of integrity in the public procurement process. It provides guidance to help Peru implement reforms that enhance the efficiency, transparency and accountability of the system.
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the challenges confronting Chile’s centralised growth model and recommendations towards developing a more integrated territorial approach, capable of mobilising regional productivity catch-up potential in order to strengthen the role of regions and municipalities.
The Chilean government has launched an ambitious decentralisation agenda, aimed at empowering municipalities by providing them with the legitimacy, financial resources, human capacities and tools required to improve their autonomy and performance. This study seeks to assist the government by covering several dimensions, looking at municipal responsibilities, fiscal and human resources, equalisation mechanisms, local public service performance, citizen participation, and co-ordination mechanisms across levels of government.
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are important elements of many national economies. They are also increasingly active internationally, which has led to renewed concerns in recent years about whether their competitive conditions in home markets might adversely impact “fair” competition with companies abroad. Many of the concerns held by national policy makers and businesses surrounding foreign SOEs’ competitive conditions stem from limited transparency and information on SOEs. This report seeks to bolster the factual information base by presenting the main findings of the most comprehensive and internationally comparable dataset currently available on the size, sectoral distribution and corporate forms of national SOE sectors in 40 countries.
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This document presents the highlights brochure for the publication Skills for a High Performing Civil Service
Civil servants make an important contribution to national growth and prosperity. Today, however, digitalisation and more demanding, pluralistic and networked societies are challenging the public sector to work in new ways. This report looks at the capacity and capabilities of civil servants of OECD countries. It explores the skills required to make better policies and regulations, to work effectively with citizens and service users, to commission cost-effective service delivery, and to collaborate with stakeholders in networked settings. The report also suggests approaches for addressing skills gaps through recruitment, development and workforce management.
The OECD is now developing a new Recommendation on Open Government, which aims to help the countries that will adhere to it design and implement successful open government reforms by identifying a clear, actionable, evidence-based, and common framework for the governance of open government* .