This book sheds light on the use of tax expenditures, mainly through a study of ten OECD countries: Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. It highlights key trends and successful practices.
Japan’s health-care system has provided universal access to care and contributed to the outstanding health status of the Japanese. Public spending has been kept below the OECD average through high co-payment rates and reductions in medical fees.
Japan needs a credible fiscal consolidation plan, including spending cuts and tax increases, to maintain confidence in its fiscal sustainability as gross public debt nears 200% of GDP in 2010.
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This article describes the introduction of a government-wide policy evaluationsystem that is underway in Japan, exemplified by the policy appraisal-evaluationsystem of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI, theformer Ministry of International Trade and Industry). The initiative in METI wasstarted in December 1999, preceding the implementation of a government-widesystem. "Policy evaluation" as a term is not limited, in this
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This article discusses selected historical developments of Japan’s public finance system from 1947 through 2004, then analyses the successful efforts for fiscal consolidation in the 1980s and the unsuccessful attempt in the 1990s. The article concludes with a look at ongoing reform efforts and lessons for the future.
This report looks at how Japan monitors, prepares for and responds to floods and earthquakes. It identifies good practices and areas where improvements could be made.
Despite concern about the negative impacts of globalisation on the economies of OECD regions, "Globalisation and Regional Economies" presents evidence that region-specific advantages remain a significant source of productivity gain for firms.
"Competitive Regional Clusters: National Policy Approaches" analyses the objectives, targeting, instruments and inter-governmental role sharing used by 26 programmes in 14 OECD countries.
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Using overlapping generations (OLG) models calibrated on 7 OECD countries - the United States, Japan, France, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden - the authors investigate the macroeconomic impact of possible pension reform strategies as populations age.