In Spain, as in most countries, the real obstacle to effective and efficient delivery of key infrastructure is not the availability of finance, but rather problems of governance. This review examines the transport infrastructure governance framework in Spain against OECD good practices. It identifies the main governance bottlenecks for the development of transport infrastructure projects and provides a comparison with what other countries have done to alleviate similar bottlenecks. It provides the Spanish authorities with assessments and recommendations to enhance their capacity to formulate, develop and implement policies and strategies that support better decision-making in transport infrastructure. The review is comprised by two complementary sections: an assessment report of the legal framework and the decision-making process of transport infrastructure investments in Spain, and a technical note that provides a benchmarking analysis on practices from selected countries (i.e. Australia, Chile, France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom), with a specific focus on the railway sector. The benchmark refers to concrete case studies that support the recommendations provided in the assessment report. The report relied on the OECD Recommendation on the Governance of Infrastructure (2020) and the OECD Recommendation on the Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships (2012).