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The essential actors in co-ordinating fiscal discipline in Germany are the Federation and the 16 Länder. This article presents an overview of the legal basis of the budgetary process and how it is designed with respect to Federation-Länder relations. Developments since 1945 are also described, including the budget reform of 1969, German adherence to the European Economic and Monetary Union, and the work of the Federalism Commission
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Since 1992, the United Kingdom has used a new type of public-private partnership for the delivery of public services: the Private Finance Initiative. In the design of PFI projects, the assessment of risk, and who is best able to manage it, needs to be carefully considered.
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Since 1997, a medium-term fiscal framework has been applied to virtually all aspects of budget preparation in Sweden. The longer three-year horizon has enabled better fiscal discipline through the use of fiscal targets and advanced forecasting models. Particular attention is placed on ensuring the consistency and quality of forecasts. In addition, forecasting of revenues and expenditures is an exercise that involves all levels of the
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Malawi provides valuable experience on the advantages of a holistic approach when attempting reforms, and on how to manage longer reform programmes. Since 1995, the budget process has been based on the principles of the Medium-term Expenditure Framework. This article presents the findings of a comprehensive review of the MTEF in 1999/2000 which examined its strengths and weaknesses, the possible causes and the proposed reforms
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The new fiscal and expenditure policy framework adopted in the United Kingdom in 1997 included clear fiscal rules and a reformed system of budgetary controls and capital appraisal procedures. Those macro and micro reforms also allowed the historic shortfall in public investment to be addressed. This article lays out some general considerations for public investment policy, including involving the private sector, and describes how the
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Uganda’s economy has undergone major fluctuations from a vibrant economy in the 1960s, to suffering severe macroeconomic imbalances in the 1970s and 1980s, to enjoying an economic revival since the late 1980s. A key focus of recent public financial management reforms has been to improve macroeconomic performance and ensure strict budgetary discipline, in particular through the use of a three-year rolling budgetary plan as early as
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The most important strategic tasks of Hungarian economic policy are to complete the process of European integration, to build up the appropriate institutional and social capacities and to harmonise real and nominal convergence. This article discusses a theoretical framework for modernisation and how it could be adapted to the Hungarian public sector. Several action scenarios are discussed, but any reforms should aim to rethink the
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This article analyses the evolution of Portuguese public expenditure from 1990 to 2004, in order to assess the current position and the prospects for future developments in the absence of corrective measures and structural reforms.
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Performance-based budgeting seems to be a promising tool for improving the management and accountability of public finances. However, its application causes many difficulties. This article briefly reviews international experience with performance-based budgeting and explores its application in the Netherlands since the late 1990s, including a case study of the Safety Programme. The focus is on transparency and the quality of the
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This article discusses selected historical developments of Japan’s public finance system from 1947 through 2004, then analyses the successful efforts for fiscal consolidation in the 1980s and the unsuccessful attempt in the 1990s. The article concludes with a look at ongoing reform efforts and lessons for the future.