As the hubs of economic activity, cities drive the vast majority of the world’s energy use and are major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Because they are home to major infrastructure and highly concentrated populations, cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as rising sea levels, warmer temperatures and fiercer storms. At the same time, better urban planning and policies can reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and improve the resilience of urban infrastructure to climate change, thus shaping future trends.
This book shows how city and metropolitan regional governments working in tandem with national governments can change the way we think about responding to climate change. The chapters analyse: trends in urbanisation, economic growth, energy use and climate change; the economic benefits of climate action; the role of urban policies in reducing energy demand, improving resilience to climate change and complementing global climate policies; frameworks for multilevel governance of climate change including engagement with relevant stakeholders; and the contribution of cities to “green growth”, including the “greening” of fiscal policies, innovation and jobs. The book also explores policy tools and best practices from both OECD and some non-member countries.
Cities and Climate Change reveals the importance of addressing climate change across all levels of government. Local involvement through “climate-conscious” urban planning and management can help achieve national climate goals and minimise tradeoffs between environmental and economic priorities at local levels. The book will be relevant to policy makers, researchers, and others with an interest in learning more about urbanisation and climate change policy.
In his remarks to "Making Reform Happen", Angel Gurría said that "well-designed and well-implemented reforms yield a triple dividend. They lift output and employment; they strengthen public budgets and they rebalance global demand."
Data are available from 1980 and provide comparable information on marketable and non-marketable central government debt instruments in all OECD member countries. They are expressed either in million of US dollars or as a percentage of GDP. The coverage of the data is limited to central government debt issuance and excludes therefore state and local government debt and social security funds. Source: Central Goverment Debt Database
Denmark is at the forefront of efforts made by countries around the world to provide and use online services and to boost a more efficient and effective public sector.
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An important criterion for the success of regulatory reform is whether regulatory systems accomplish their policy objectives. Despite a massive increase in regulation and government-imposed formalities in most countries since the 1970s, results have too often been disappointing.
This publication on cutting red tape analyses how administrative simplification is used as a regulatory quality tool to review and reduce administrative and regulatory procedures.
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The 2009 report presents indicators of the development of the regulatory management systems used in OECD countries to improve the quality of regulation.
Located on the southern coast of China, Guangdong is the country’s most populous and rich province. It has 95.4 million inhabitants and provides one-eighth of the national GDP. A key development feature of Guangdong has been “processing trade”, which has allowed companies to profit from importing materials, assembling goods and exporting them via Hong Kong, China.
The recent economic crisis has had a strong impact on the province, although Guangdong also faces in-depth structural problems. Growing labour costs and strain on land availability have increasingly challenged the province’s traditional model of development, as have new competitors in China and abroad. Meanwhile, regional disparities within the province have increased, with a high concentration of economic activities and foreign direct investment in the Pearl River Delta area, an agglomeration of nine prefectures of 47.7 million inhabitants that represents 79.4% of the province’s total GDP.
This review assesses Guangdong’s current approach to economic development. The province is focusing on industrial policies primarily aimed at heavy manufacturing industries (e.g. automobile, shipbuilding, petrochemicals) and supported by investment in hard infrastructure transport projects and energy supply, along with the implementation of the “Double Relocation” policies intended to move lower value-added factories to lagging regions through incentive mechanisms like industrial parks.
The review discusses how some principles of the OECD regional paradigm could help Guangdong. It also addresses the huge environmental challenges that the province is facing and explores the opportunity for developing a green growth strategy. Strategies to improve Guangdong’s governance are analysed as well, with particular attention paid to co-ordination issues within the Pearl River Delta.
The Territorial Review of Guangdong is integrated into a series of thematic reviews on regions undertaken by the OECD Territorial Development Policy Committee. The overall aim of these case studies is to draw and disseminate horizontal policy recommendations for regional and national governments.
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The OECD Working Party of Senior Budget Officials (SBO) studies ways to help countries modernise their budget processes. This note highlights key institutional elements of a reformed budget process that can help minimise the extent of any future fiscal crisis.
Under the work programme with Middle East and North African countries (MENA), the third meeting of the OECD-MENA Senior Budget Officials network was held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 October-1 November 2010, hosted by the authorities of the United Arab Emirates