Since the IEA last reviewed Germany’s energy policies in 2007, the country has taken two fundamental policy decisions that will guide its energy policy in coming decades. In September 2010, the federal government adopted the Energy Concept, a comprehensive new strategy for a long-term integrated energy pathway to 2050. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate the phase-out of nuclear power by 2022 starting with the immediate closure of the eight oldest plants. This decision resulted in the adoption of a new suite of policy measures, determined renewable energy as the cornerstone of future energy supply, a set of policy instruments commonly known as the Energiewende.
In order to achieve the ambitious energy transformation set out in the Energiewende, by 2030 half of all electricity supply will come from renewable energy sources; Germany must continue to develop cost-effective market-based approaches which will support the forecast growth of variable renewable generation. Furthermore, the costs and benefits need to be allocated in a fair and transparent way among all market participants, especially households.
Renewable energy capacity must expand alongside the timely development of the transmission and distribution networks. In addition, a stable regulatory system is necessary to ensure long-term finance to network operators. Furthermore, close monitoring of Germany’s ability to meet electricity demand at peak times should continue in the medium term.
Energy policy decisions in Germany inevitably have an impact beyond the country’s borders and must be taken within the context of a broader European energy policy framework and in close consultation with its neighbours.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Germany and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Labour migration is supposed to be one means to help meet future labour and skill shortages caused by a shrinking working-age population, this book addresses the question of how to ensure that international recruitment can help meet urgent needs in the labour market which cannot be met locally.
German, PDF, 432kb
Gains in female education attainment have contributed to a worldwide increase in women’s participation in the labour force, but considerable gaps remain in working hours, conditions of employment and earnings. More specific data for Germany are available in this country note.
Is growth possible in all OECD regions? Evidence suggests that it is. This report argues that helping underdeveloped regions to catch up with more developed ones will have a positive impact on a country’s national growth overall, and that such growth helps to build a fairer society, in which no region’s citizens are left behind.
Restoring competitiveness is one of the key challenges to bring European economies back on a path of strong, sustainable and balanced growth. Europe could improve its growth prospects by implementing a strategic reform agenda with a broad range of policy reforms to increase productivity, dynamism and employment.
English, PDF, 2,025kb
The current crisis and deteriorating growth prospects in many countries make a competiveness enhancing reform agenda a conditio sine qua non to kick-off the European economy.
Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Germany and the Euro Area, focusing on how their governments can make reform happen.
This overview of the management of risk due to livestock diseases focuses on government policies relating to livestock health systems and compensation scheme designs, and includes case studies of Australia, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands and Viet Nam.
English, PDF, 158kb
The German labour market recovered very quickly from the 2008-09 economic crisis and unemployment continued its long-run structural decline in 2010 and 2011.