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Germany has the 3rd highest tax wedge among the 34 OECD member countries. The country occupied the same position in 2014. The average single worker in Germany faced a tax wedge of 49.4% in 2015, compared with the OECD average of 35.9%.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
Germany is achieving good labour market outcomes and the recently introduced minimum wage has improved the situation of low wage earners. Main challenges are subdued investment, population ageing as well as the employability of refugees. Strengthening entrepreneurship and competition would boost investment. Policies could do more to help parents to reconcile professional and family obligations.
The 2015 edition of National Accounts of OECD Countries, General Government Accounts is an annual publication, dedicated to government finance which is based on the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008) for all countries except Chile, Japan, Korea and Turkey (SNA 1993). It includes tables showing government aggregates and balances for the production, income and financial accounts as well as detailed tax and social contribution receipts and a breakdown of expenditure of general government by function, according to the harmonised international classification, COFOG. These detailed accounts are available for the general government sector. Data also cover the following sub-sectors, according to availability: central government, state government, local government and social security funds.
The data in this publication are also available on line via www.oecd-ilibrary.org under the title OECD National Accounts Statistics, General Government Accounts (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga-data-en and http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga08-data-en).
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There are 37 faculties of medicine in Germany offering medical education, including a private university. Admission to medical studies remains highly competitive. In 2011, 37,400 students applied but only 9,432 students were admitted (roughly one out of four).
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In Germany, there are two main categories of nurses, first level and second level. A majority of first level nurses are trained through a 3-year vocational training programme involving hospital-based training, and these nurses can go on to pursue further education and training to specialise within the hospital setting.
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In 2012, 18% of students in Germany were low performers in mathematics (OECD average: 23%), 14% were low performers in reading (OECD average: 18%), 12% were low performers in science (OECD average: 18%), and 9% were low performers in all three of these subjects (OECD average: 12%).
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The tax burden in Germany declined by 0.4 percentage points from 36.5% to 36.1% in 2014. The corresponding figures for the OECD average were an increase of 0.2 percentage points from 34.2% to 34.4%.
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This 4-page online document presents the key findings from OECD Pensions at a Glance 2015 and why it is important for Germany. It also identifies two key pension policy measures which would help improve the performance of pension systems in Germany.
The 2015 edition introduces more detailed analysis of participation in early childhood and tertiary levels of education. The report also examines first generation tertiary-educated adults’ educational and social mobility, labour market outcomes for recent graduates, and participation in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education.