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This country note from Going for Growth 2015 for Germany identifies and assesses progress made on key reforms to boost long-term growth, improve competitiveness and productivity and create jobs.
Institutional investors (investment funds, insurance companies and pension funds) are major collectors of savings and suppliers of funds to financial markets. Their role as financial intermediaries and their impact on investment strategies have grown significantly over recent years along with deregulation and globalisation of financial markets.
This publication provides a unique set of statistics that reflect the level and structure of the financial assets of institutional investors in the OECD countries, and in the Russian Federation. Concepts and definitions are predominantly based on the System of National Accounts. Data are derived from national sources.
Data include outstanding amounts of financial assets such as currency and deposits, securities, loans, and shares. When relevant, they are further broken down according to maturity and residency. The publication covers investment funds, of which open-end companies and closed-end companies, as well as insurance corporations and autonomous pension funds. Indicators are presented as percentages of GDP allowing for international comparisons, and at country level, both in national currency and as percentages of total financial assets of the investor. Time series display available data for the last eight years.
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The tax burden in Germany increased by 0.2 percentage points from 36.5% to 36.7% in 2013. The corresponding figure for the OECD average was an increase of 0.4 percentage points from 33.7% to 34.1%. The German standard VAT rate is 19%, which is very close to the OECD average. The average VAT/GST standard rate in the OECD was 19.1% on 1 January 2014.
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Progress has been made to reduce smoking rates and alcohol consumption in Germany, but obesity is on the rise as in most other EU countries. As in other EU countries, spending for prevention in Germany accounts only for around 3% of current health spending.
While past labour market reforms have been successful in terms of employment, the relative poverty risk and income inequality have remained broadly unchanged in recent years.
In 2013, net immigration to Germany reached about 437 000 persons, which represented a significant increase compared with previous years (in 2012, it was 370 000).
The world economy is still suffering from the strains of the longest crisis of modern times, and nowhere is this more evident than in the high unemployment numbers. In this OECD Observer Roundtable, we asked a cross-section of ministers: “What actions are you taking to create more and better jobs in your economy?”
"We have to transition to more transparent, multilateral mechanisms. Thanks to your hard work, taxation is finally catching up with globalisation, making it more redistributive, harnessing its potential for social progress and justice, making people’s lives better. People sometimes forget that this is what taxation, indeed what economics is all about.", said the OECD Secretary-General at the Global Forum.
Country notes outlining regional variations in health, jobs, safety, environment, access to services, civic engagement, housing, education, income, and employment. These notes are from the OECD publication "How's Life in Your Region?".
Getting regions and cities 'right', adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work, is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. View the country factsheets from the publication OECD Regional Outlook 2014.