Gender equality in employment

 

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During the crisis gender gaps in employment first narrowed but then widened again

In the early years of the crisis, in most OECD countries gender gaps in employment shrank mostly due to heavy job losses in male-dominated sectors. In many cases, women were able to increase their hours of work, especially if they were working part-time. However, from 2009 onwards, unemployment continued to increase for women while it declined or rose at a slower pace for men. [Graph and data] Cuts in public-sector employment will further worsen women's position.



More than 80% of women, but less than 60% of men, work in the service sector

In OECD countries, on average, one in three women employed in the service sector works in sales, hotels and restaurants. The highest proportions of women work in health and community services (78%) and the education sector (70%). [Graph and data]



In OECD countries 24% of employed women work part-time, but only 8% of men

Mothers are generally more likely than women without children to work part-time. In the Netherlands and Germany, for example, more than 60% of women with children work part-time. [Graph and data] The prevalence of part-time work tends to be greater in countries with high childcare costs such as Japan, Switzerland and the Anglophone countries.



In OECD countries less than three out of ten senior managers and one out of ten board members are women

With the introduction of quota legislation in 2006, Norway has reached the 40% mark in the representation of women on company boards. [Graph and data] Important gender gaps remain in senior position also in the public sector, although women constitute about 58% of the public sector workforce. In the European Union, for example, women occupy 33% of the highest-level positions in socio-cultural ministries, but only 22% in the ministries with economic and key strategic functions.



Women devote, on average, more than twice as much time to household work as men

When both partners work, women still spend more than 2 hours per day extra in unpaid work. [Graph and data] This gap is due to the fact that many women work part-time, but it hardly narrows when both partners work full-time. Even in female-earner couples men only do as much housework as women.

 

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Data on employment

 

‌ Find out more:

OECD Recommendation on Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship

OECD Employment Outlook

OECD International Migration Outlook

Doing Better for Families

Society at a Glance 2011 

OECD Factbook

Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave Policies in OECD Countries

Effects of Reducing Gender Gaps in Education and Labour Force Participation on Economic Growth in the OECD

Help Wanted?

Providing and Paying for Long-Term Care

Cooking, Caring and Volunteering: Unpaid Work Around the World

Gender Equality in OECD countries in the Pacific Rim and other APEC countries

Women in work: The Norwegian experience

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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