The OECD has contributed extensively to the definition of the G20 development concepts, based on growth and resilience, as well as knowledge sharing and policy dialogues to benefit low-income countries.
SAINT PETERSBURG DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK
The Saint Petersburg Development Outlook frames the G20 approach to development, identifying 5 priority areas (infrastructure, food security, financial inclusion, domestic resource mobilisation, and human resource development), stating the main challenges, the responses and new G20 actions required. The Saint Petersburg Development Outlook (pdf) requests that the Development working group produces an Accountability Report every 3 years.
Responding to the G20 Leaders’ call in Los Cabos to ensure assessment and accountability for G20 development actions, the G20 Development Working Group (DWG) conducted its first accountability exercise in 2013.
G20 MULTI YEAR ACTION PLAN (MYAP)
The OECD has been an active member of the G20 Development Working Group (DWG) since its inception in the summer 2010. Alongside other international organisations, the OECD provided analytical support to G20 member countries in the design.
The MYAP is divided into nine pillars, with the OECD either co-ordinating or contributing to the work in 8 of these areas*:
The OECD has made specific contributions in the area of infrastructure, notably on developing principles for public-private partnership (PPP) effectiveness. The OECD is involved in the development of the "Sokoni Marketplace" and in the Global Infrastructure Benchmarking Initiative (an extension of the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnosis).
2. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
The G20 has been working to develop internationally comparable and practical indicators of skills for employment and productivity in developing countries. The OECD, together with other international organisations, has constructed an indicator framework aiming to help developing countries match training to employer needs; identify gaps in the education system for basic employability skills; and identify links between education, health problems, gender gaps and life-long skills development. The analysis is benefitting from OECD tools such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), and the gender indicators from the Development Centre’s SIGI database.
G20 countries will build on the ongoing processes of relevant international institutions and on the outcomes of the Global Aid for Trade Review of July 2011. The OECD is monitoring aid for trade flows, with a view of helping G20 countries in tracking their own commitments and scaling up its work to evaluate impacts.
4. PRIVATE INVESTMENT AND JOB CREATION
G20 members want to identify and promoting the best existing standards (developmental, social and environmental) for responsible investment in value chains and voluntary investor compliance with these standards. In response to this mandate, the OECD contributed to a report on how to promote existing standards of responsible investment. It also worked on the development of a toolkit of indicators to assess the contribution of investment to value-addition and job creation.
5. FOOD SECURITY
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Bank and the OECD, in cooperation with the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI), have reviewed and monitored progress on G20 commitments to food security and sustainable agricultural development. The OECD’s expertise has been informing the development of three pilot projects in Brazil, Australia and Canada.
6. GROWTH WITH RESILIENCE
The OECD has made contributions on issues pertaining to the interaction between social protection and labour markets, on affordability of social protection and on social protection coverage and informality.
8. DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILISATION (DRM)
Leaders asked the expanded OECD Task Force on Tax and Development, the UN, the IMF, the World Bank and regional organisations to propose options for supporting the development of more effective tax systems in low-income countries (LICs). The OECD is playing a leading role in developing and managing the initiatives, platforms and instruments that are used to tackle tax havens and non-cooperative jurisdictions, provide technical assistance co-ordination, and improve the availability of tax revenue statistics.
9. KNOWLEDGE SHARING
The OECD has been working with other organisations to devise options for broadening access to knowledge on policies for growth and development. G20 countries have shown interest in the design of knowledge platforms on tropical agriculture, skills and social protection. The OECD supported Korea and Mexico to prepare a status report on their efforts to promote knowledge sharing platforms.
OECD CONTRIBUTIONS TO G20