France has a significantly low-carbon electricity mix, owing to the key role of nuclear energy. However, much of France’s nuclear fleet is reaching the end of its lifetime. Against this background, France has started an ambitious energy transition: it is a world leader in designing a governance framework with a national low-carbon strategy, carbon budgets, a carbon price trajectory and plans for energy investment.
France plans to reduce the share of nuclear to 50% in the electricity mix by 2025. While some nuclear reactors may continue long-term operation under safe conditions, maintaining security of supply and a low-carbon footprint while reducing nuclear energy will require investments in renewable energy and efficiency. The 2016 IEA review of France’s energy policies highlights these and several other areas that are critical to the success of the energy transition. For example, planned growth of the share of electric vehicles and variable renewable electricity will require enhanced power system operation and flexibility, including demand-side response, smart grids and metering, and more interconnections.
The financing of this transition depends upon continued carbon price signals, increasingly open markets, competition, and consumer empowerment in gas and electricity retail markets.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing France and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances, based on five country-specific policy notes for France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom. It provides a comparative assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; the design of education and training systems and their responsiveness to changing skill needs; the re-training of unemployed individuals; and the improvement of skills use and skills matching in the labour market. The assessment is based on country visits, desk research and data analysis conducted by the OECD secretariat in the five countries reviewed. Examples of good practice from other countries are also discussed.
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After a small decrease during the second half of 2015, unemployment has been stabilising in France over the past year, but at 9.5% of the labour force in April, it remains high and well above its level before the financial crisis (7.3% in March 2008). In most other OECD countries, labour market conditions have shown stronger improvements.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
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France had the 4th highest tax wedge among the 35 OECD member countries in 2016. The country had the 5th highest position in 2015. The average single worker in France faced a tax wedge of 48.1% in 2016 compared with the OECD average of 36.0%.
These country specific notes provide figures and commentary from the Taxation and Skills publication that examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries.
This report examines how land is governed in France. It describes the laws, policies and practices that shape spatial and land-use planning in the country as a whole, and provides a detailed assessment of specific governance arrangements and practices in two metropolitan areas: Clermont-Ferrand, a mid-range urban agglomeration in south-central France; and Nantes Saint-Nazaire, the 6th largest urban agglomeration in the country, located in the north-west. These case studies highlight the trends and challenges faced in each region—such as the need to protect fragile environments from growing peri-urbanisation—and the unique approaches that have been adopted to manage land-use issues across a large number of communes. The report offers recommendations on how to strengthen the capacity and effectiveness of the spatial planning system in order to ensure that land is used in an effective and sustainable way.
As part of the STI Outlook 2016, the OECD has released policy profiles by country. These include cross-country analyses that draw on the first joint EC-OECD survey on STI policies. They focus on major STI policy areas, instruments and trends.
This publication provides detailed country notes on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries.
This annual publication presents detailed country notes and internationally comparable tax data for all OECD countries from 1965 onwards.