This is a third update on developments in the field of regional trade agreements and environment covering the period late 2008 to December 2009. (OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper N° 2010-01)
Presentations and information from a 2010 OECD workshop on policy challenges that governments face in aquaculture development, including economic, environmental and social aspects.
Rebuilding fisheries is a key challenge for many countries as some stocks are in a poor state while others are depleted. In May 2009, economists, biologists, fisheries managers and policy makers participated in an OECD Workshop on the Economics of Rebuilding Fisheries. The workshop was designed to identify and analyse economic uncertainties, policy issues, biological conditions and information constraints, and to review the role of key players in program delivery. This conference proceedings presents an overview of the major economic and institutional issues associated with rebuilding fisheries and provides examples of national and international initiatives.
This overview of global markets for fish and fish products finds that they have changed considerably over the past few decades and continue to do so, with ever growing interactions across countries and continents. Change has brought substantial benefits to the world economy and a number of policy challenges for governments. To meet these challenges, without compromising the advantages of increasing market interactions, countries must develop and implement fisheries management frameworks and aquaculture strategies that accommodate globalisation without undermining resource sustainability.
In developing a stronger focus on agricultural biomass crops, governments will have to design support policies so as to avoid compromising the ability of the agricultural sector to provide food and feed in a sustainable manner, this study finds.
This report complements earlier OECD work on liquid biofuels and provides information on biomass based heat and power, as well as on biogas. It discusses the heterogeneous portfolio of different biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies, and pathways of utilisation. It also shows that governments in many countries provide substantial support to the production and use of renewable energy in general, and bioenergy in particular; these support measures are highly diverse and are given at national and various sub-national levels.
The results of a large number of life-cycle analyses of various bioheat and biopower chains reviewed in this study indicate that the objective to reduce GHG emissions and fossil energy use is met; indeed the savings estimated for most chains are substantial when compared to fossil alternatives. At present, most of the chains examined do not compete with food and feed production, and thus the implications for agricultural markets are small. It is clear, however, that if a stronger focus on agricultural biomass crops is to be developed, this will require careful design of support policies so as to avoid compromising the ability of the agricultural sector to provide food and feed in a sustainable manner.
Français, Excel, 2,448kb
Document d'information de l'OCDE, gratuit à télécharger, sur le soutien à l'agriculture
Metals and minerals such as copper, titanium and rare earths are used to produce high-tech and energy-efficient goods such as hybrid vehicles, computers and aircraft. This paper looks at the impacts of export restrictions often put on these raw materials.
Country case studies of China, Japan, Netherlands, South Africa and the United States in measures that may hamper trade in steel scrap, recovered paper and plastic scrap, and if and how they could be removed without compromising environmental protection.
Ce rapport offre des informations sur les tendances récentes et des perspectives sur l'utilisation des ressources et des recommandations concrètes sur ce que les pays devraient faire et sur les raisons pour lesquelles ils devraient le faire.