How do small farms in developing countries manage risk? This paper assesses farm-level agricultural risk management strategies in Brazil, China and Viet Nam. Farmers in developing countries often rely on community strategies such as crop sharing, or deplete their assets and so perpetuate poverty. Policies to promote investment, such as access to credit and insurance, can help smallholders move out of poverty or into the non-farm sector.
Global agricultural production is expected to grow 1.5% a year on average over the coming decade, compared with annual growth of 2.1% between 2003 and 2012, according to the latest OECD-FAO agricultural market projections for production, consumption, trade, stocks and prices of featured commodities.
Large farm size, low age profile, high educational level and use of financial leverage are factors in high economic performance of farms, according to this analysis of data from nine OECD countries and regions. The analysis shows significant differences in farm economic performances within countries as well as across countries.
The potential multilateralisation of government procurement commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs) presents many issues and challenges. To what extent do RTAs go beyond the 2012 revised Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), and how do they differ among trading partners? This report surveys 47 RTAs in force with government procurement provisions where an OECD member is a party.
The costs to implement and maintain trade facilitation measures are not large and far smaller than the benefits gained from implementing these measures, according to this study. Moreover, an increasing amount of technical and financial assistance to implement these measures has been made available to developing countries over the last decade.
International firms in developing economies tend to employ more workers and pay higher wages than firms dealing exclusively with the domestic market, according to this paper demonstrating the links between global value chains (GVCs)and labour market outcomes. Engagement in international activities provides greater opportunities for women to enter the formal employment market.
How do global value chains (GVCs) impact employment markets in developing countries? This paper reviews the literature on the subject, focusing on the labour market impacts of three processes that lie at the core of GVC development: importing, exporting, and foreign direct investment (FDI). Two case studies are presented
Understanding trade costs is essential for formulating policy interventions designed to reduce such costs. This report synthesises all OECD work on cost factors across the entire trade chain.
Un accord multilatéral visant à alléger les formalités administratives du commerce international permettrait de réduire considérablement les coûts liés aux échanges et de stimuler sensiblement l’économie mondiale, selon une nouvelle étude de l’OCDE.
This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan and conducted within the framework of the OECD Eurasia Competitiveness Programme, assesses the performance of agriculture in Kazakhstan over the last two decades. It evaluates agricultural policy reforms in Kazakhstan and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. This analysis is based on the approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and designed to support productivity, competitiveness and sustainable development, while avoiding unnecessary distortions to production decisions and to trade. A special chapter of the Review highlights the constraints to farm incomes that exist beyond the farm gate and related policy issues.