The costs of a persistent misalignment between the supply and demand for skills are substantial, ranging from lost wages for workers to lower productivity for firms and countries. Addressing skills imbalances has become even more of a concern as OECD governments reflect on the implications of technological progress, digitisation, demographic change and globalisation for jobs and work organisation. In light of these challenges, OECD has undertaken new research to shed light on how countries measure changing skill needs while ensuring that employment, training and migration institutions are responsive to the emergence of new skill requirements. The Getting Skills Right in Sweden review offers an in-depth analysis of the key areas where policy action is required to spur the development of an efficient system for skills assessment and anticipation to inform policy in the country. The report provides an assessment of practices in the following areas: i) the collection of information on existing and future skill needs; ii) the use of skill needs information to guide policy development in the areas of labour, education and migration; and iii) the existence of effective governance arrangements to ensure good co-ordination among the key stakeholders in the collection and use of skill needs information.
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Drawing on the expertise and experience of OECD member countries, the brochure lays out key policy priorities in the areas of education, migration, development co-operation, housing, public investment and environmental quality to support the Swedish government in addressing current challenges.
Sweden has a remarkable track record in sustaining a high level of well-being of its citizens. The country performs above the OECD average in all dimensions of the OECD’s Better Life Index, and these good outcomes are typically shared widely across the population. Sweden is one of the leading countries in receiving refugees and a strong supporter of ambitious global goals to fight climate change and implement the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. However, for this success story to continue, the country needs to reverse the declining educational performance of its youth, speed up labour market integration of newly arrived immigrants and address infrastructure deficiencies, particularly in the housing sector. Also, Sweden’s high ambitions with respect to environmental protection call for further policy action to advance the transition to a low carbon and circular economy.
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This note presents selected findings based on the set of well-being indicators published in How's Life? 2016.
This review is the first in a new series on the skills and labour market integration of immigrants and their children. With 16% of its population born abroad, Sweden has one of the larger immigrant populations among the European OECD countries. Estimates suggest that about half of the foreign-born population originally came to Sweden as refugees or as the family of refugees and Sweden has been the OECD country that has had by far the largest inflows of asylum seekers relative to its population. In all OECD countries, humanitarian migrants and their families face greater challenges to integrate into the labour market than other groups. It is thus not surprising that immigrant versus native-born differences are larger than elsewhere, which also must be seen in the context of high skills and labour market participation among the native-born. For both genders, employment disparities are particularly pronounced among the low-educated, among whom immigrants are heavily overrepresented. These immigrants face particular challenges related to the paucity of low-skilled jobs in Sweden, and policy needs to acknowledge that their integration pathway tends to be a long one. Against this backdrop, Sweden has highly developed and longstanding integration policies that mainly aim at upskilling immigrants while temporarily lowering the cost of hiring, while other tools that work more strongly with the social partners and the civil society are less well developed and need strengthening.
The tax burden on labour income is expressed by the tax wedge, which is a measure of the net tax burden on labour income borne by the employee and the employer.
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Sweden has the 9th highest tax wedge among the 34 OECD member countries. The average single worker in Sweden faced a tax wedge of 42.7% in 2015, compared with the OECD average of 35.9%. The country occupied the 10th highest position in 2014.
L’édition 2015 des Comptes nationaux des pays de l’OCDE : Comptes des administrations publiques est une publication annuelle de l’OCDE, consacrée aux finances publiques et basée sur le Système de Comptabilité Nationale 2008 (SCN 2008) pour tous les pays sauf le Chili, le Japon, et la Turquie (SCN 1993). La publication comprend des tableaux avec les agrégats et les soldes des administrations publiques pour les comptes de production, de revenu et les comptes financiers. Elle comprend également les recettes détaillées d’impôts et de cotisations sociales ainsi que la ventilation des dépenses des administrations publiques par fonction, selon la classification harmonisée au niveau international CFAP. Ces comptes détaillés sont disponibles pour le secteur des administrations publiques avec, dans la mesure du possible, le détail par sous-secteur : administration centrale,
Cette publication est également disponible sous forme de base de données en ligne qui permet aux utilisateurs d’extraire des données et de construire des tableaux et graphiques. Elle est disponible via www.oecd-ilibrary.org sous le titre Statistiques de l'OCDE sur les comptes nationaux, Comptes des administrations publiques (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga-data-fr et http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga08-data-fr).
The 2016 Sweden Review of Innovation Policy deepens the 2012 Review by focusing on six policy initiatives central to the 2008 and 2012 Swedish Research and Innovation Bills, notably: 1) the increase in funding for university research, 2) the establishment of Strategic Research Areas, 3) actions designed to enhance the role of research institutes in Sweden’s innovation system, 4) the definition and funding of Strategic Innovation Areas in collaboration with industrial, academic and research institute actors, 5) the initiation of a Challenge-Driven Innovation programme addressing societal challenges, 6) improved prioritisation and support for Swedish participation in European research and innovation activities.
Job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over their lifetime. Displaced workers may face long periods of unemployment and, even when they find new jobs, tend to be paid less and have fewer benefits than in their prior jobs. Helping them get back into good jobs quickly should be a key goal of labour market policy. This report is the fourth in a series of reports looking at how this challenge is being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It shows that Sweden has been relatively successful in minimising the adverse effects of displaced workers, manily due to the longstanding tradition of collaboration between the social partners to share responsibility for restructuring by creating special arrangements and practices that provide help to workers much faster that in other OECD countries. Despite this positive institutional framework, there is room to improve policies targeted to displaced workers as remarkable inequalities still exist in both the Swedish labour market and in the way workers are treated.