Kazakhstan is aware of the importance of innovation for its socio-economic development, including the diversification of its resource-based economy. Since the start of the millennium, Kazakhstan has put in place key components of a modern research and innovation system. This has helped improve scientific output and resulted in some successes in technology commercialisation. Further commitment and effort will be needed to strengthen innovation capabilities and make the most of Kazakhstan‘s advantages. This requires further reforms in order, notably, to strengthen the funding model of universities, intensify and broaden knowledge transfer, improve the governance of the research and innovation system, and increase the effectiveness of innovation incentives and policies, with a focus on implementation and evaluation.
Although Finland achieved a widely acclaimed transformation to become a leading knowledge-based economy in the late 20th century, the 2009 recession and disruptive change contributing to a deep restructuring of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry and the downsizing of traditional sectors have weighed on the economy, productivity growth and international competitiveness. Numerous policy reforms have since been undertaken, and public and private investment, especially in applied R&D, has been cut back. Strengthening and lifting Finland’s innovation system out of a period of uncertainty requires a coherent and unified new vision for science, technology and innovation (STI), renewed investment and policy instruments. This vision should be oriented towards renewal tackling societal challenges and developing new knowledge-based competitive advantages at global scale. Success calls for better co-ordination and co-operation among policy actors and national and regional-levels, and further internationalisation.
Ce rapport explore les perspectives de croissance de l'économie de la mer, sa capacité à créer de l'emploi dans le futur et son rôle dans la gestion des défis mondiaux. Une attention particulière est accordée aux industries émergentes liées à la mer compte tenu de leur potentiel de croissance et d'innovation, et de leur contribution à résoudre les questions de sécurité énergétique, d'environnement, du changement climatique et de la sécurité alimentaire.
Le rapport examine les risques et les incertitudes concernant le développement futur des industries liées à la mer, les innovations requises en science et technologie pour soutenir leur progression, leur contribution potentielle à la croissance verte et certaines implications pour la gestion des océans. Enfin, en examinant l'économie de la mer dans son ensemble, la publication explore les possibilités d'action susceptibles de stimuler les perspectives de développement à long terme, tout en gérant l'utilisation de la mer de manière responsable et durable.
This paper is designed to serve as a reference for subsequent papers arising out of MultiProd, a project aimed at studying productivity patterns across countries and over time. MultiProd provides harmonised micro-aggregated data of paramount importance for investigating the extent to which different policy frameworks can shape firm productivity and examining the way resources are allocated to more productive firms.
This report provides new evidence on the increasing dispersion in wages and productivity using novel micro-aggregated firm-level data from 16 countries.
This publication examines the opportunities and challenges, for business and government, associated with technologies bringing about the “next production revolution”. These include a variety of digital technologies (e.g. the Internet of Things and advanced robotics), industrial biotechnology, 3D printing, new materials and nanotechnology. Some of these technologies are already used in production, while others will be available in the near future. All are developing rapidly. As these technologies transform the production and the distribution of goods and services, they will have far-reaching consequences for productivity, skills, income distribution, well-being and the environment. The more that governments and firms understand how production could develop in the near future, the better placed they will be to address the risks and reap the benefits.
Results of this study show that workers' skills bundles and their distribution have larger effects on specialisation than countries’ endowment of capital per employee, or the relative endowment of workers possessing different levels of education. Furthermore, the study finds evidence that the within-country dispersion of skills significantly affects specialisation patterns.
Every month, this newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD on the translation of science, technology and knowledge into innovation.
This paper analyses the role that inclusive innovation policies can play in tackling social, industrial and territorial inclusiveness challenges by drawing on 33 detailed policy examples from 15 countries. The paper discusses why these policies should be a priority, explores the specific challenges that arise in their implementation, and provides recommendations as to how the challenges can best be addressed.
This paper presents a critical discussion of ex-post impact evaluation of policies that affect regional economic development, with a particular emphasis on drawing useful implications for policy making. The ultimate goal is to “bridge” the perceived distance between policy discussions on the one side, and academic debates on the other. Some specific recommendations conclude the report.