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  • 23-November-2020

    English

    CO2 emissions embodied in international trade and domestic final demand - Methodology and results using the OECD Inter-Country Input-Output Database

    This paper describes the sources and methods used to estimate carbon emissions embodied in final demand and international gross trade for 65 economies over the period 2005-2015. Earlier OECD analyses of carbon footprints, accounting for global production networks, helped raise awareness of divergences between territorial and resident principles, and between production-based and consumption-based carbon emissions. Understanding the differences in these measures is important for governments to better understand and address greenhouse gas mitigation options. Thus, a new refined methodology was applied to allocate territorial emissions to production-based emissions (industries and households) using OECD Inter-Country Input-Output tables and International Energy Agency (IEA) CO2 emissions from fuel combustion statistics. In particular, this methodology introduces: 1) explicit distinctions between territorial and resident principles, economic output and final demand-based emissions and emissions embodied in gross imports and exports; 2) estimates by major fuel combustion sources; and 3) fuel purchases by non-resident industries and households.
  • 20-November-2020

    English

    Encouraging digital security innovation - Global Forum on Digital Security for Prosperity

    This document summarises discussions held at the second annual event of the OECD Global Forum on Digital Security for Prosperity. The event, held on 14-15 November 2019 in London, brought together 160 experts and 30 speakers from government, business, civil society, the technical community and academia to discuss how to encourage digital security innovation. Participants explored the roles that different stakeholders can play in stimulating digital security innovation, including how governments can support it for example by implementing tax incentives, acting as an early customer for innovative products, and enacting flexible and outcome-based regulation. A digital security innovation ecosystem is the most important component of a strategic approach, as it brings together different stakeholder groups in a dedicated location. Participants discussed how different ecosystems can learn from one another through international co-operation and considered how governments can encourage digital security by design in innovation more generally.
  • 18-November-2020

    English

    The OECD STAN Database for industrial analysis - Sources and methods

    This paper summarises and describes the variables, industries, methods and sources used in the construction of the STructural ANalysis (STAN) industry database. The STAN database serves as a tool for analysing industrial performance at a relatively detailed level of industrial activity. It includes annual measures of output, value added and its components, as well as labour input, investment and capital stock from 1970 onwards. This allows for a wide range of comparative cross-country analyses focusing on, for example, productivity growth, competitiveness and economic structural change. A standard industry list allows for comparisons across countries and provides sufficient detail to focus on, for example, high R&D-intensive activities, high digital-intensive activities or detailed ICT industries. The industry list is compatible with those used in related OECD industry databases.
  • 13-November-2020

    English

    Challenges in access to oncology medicines - Policies and practices across the OECD and the EU

    With rapid advancements in oncology, even the wealthiest countries around the globe find it increasingly challenging to provide – and sustain – access to new medicines. Challenges include managing the uncertainty surrounding the extent of benefit of new treatments; complexities in determining the price and place in therapy of certain products; and the need to reconcile affordable, equitable access with spending efficiency and fiscal sustainability. Differences in timing of market entry and heterogeneity of coverage processes and policies contribute to inequity in access across the OECD and EU. Future policies and practices to promote sustainable access to oncology medicines will likely focus on improving affordability for patients and value-for-money for payers. An important element will be strengthening the evidence base, drawing on both clinical trial and 'real world' evidence, and enhancing international collaboration and information sharing to improve countries’ collective capacity to address clinical and economic uncertainties.
  • 10-November-2020

    English

    Declining business dynamism - Structural and policy determinants

    This paper analyses trends in business dynamism across 18 countries and 22 industries over the last two decades, using highly representative comparable data. It finds that declines in business dynamism, pervasive in many countries, are driven by dynamics occurring at a disaggregated sectoral level, rather than reallocation across sectors. Average trends within sectors point to steady declines in each country over the last two decades, even after accounting for the role of the business cycle, with market structure and firm heterogeneity emerging as prominent determinants. Investments in intangibles and digital technologies, globalisation, and changes in demographics also contribute to these trends. Policy can, however, help boost business dynamism by reducing barriers to entry and to knowledge diffusion, favouring experimentation and creative destruction, and increasing absorptive capacity and firms’ potential to benefit from technological change.
  • 9-November-2020

    English

    Digital security: Seven lessons learned during the COVID-19 crisis

    This policy brief discusses key digital security policy issues that have emerged during the coronavirus crisis and highlights urgent needs.

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  • 3-novembre-2020

    Français

    Indicateurs de biotechnologie de l'OCDE

    Les indicateurs de biotechnologie ci-dessous sont produits par la Direction de la science, de la technologie et de l'innovation (DSTI) de l'OCDE.

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  • 3-November-2020

    English

    Key nanotechnology indicators

    Indicators include nanotech firms, nanotech R&D, public sector R&D expenditure and nanotechnology patents.

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  • 2-novembre-2020

    Français

    Politiques et gouvernance de l'Internet

    Ressources de l'OCDE sur la gouvernance de l'Internet et sur sa participation au Forum sur la gouvernance de l'Internet.

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  • 26-October-2020

    English

    OECD Telecommunication and Broadcasting Review of Brazil 2020

    Connectivity is the backbone of the digital transformation, and as such, policies and regulatory measures that foster access to high-quality communication services at competitive prices are key. This review provides a comprehensive examination of Brazil’s communication and broadcasting sectors, highlighting areas for regulatory and policy reform that can help ensure a successful and inclusive digital transformation. It analyses market performance of the communication and broadcasting sectors, as well as underlying policies and regulations. Based on its findings, the report recommends actions in five key areas: improving the policy and regulatory framework; overhauling the taxation, fees and tariff framework; improving market conditions; fostering competition in communication and broadcasting markets; and strengthening national policies and evidence-based policy making. These areas should be addressed simultaneously, in order to ensure a holistic approach to reform.
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