De nouveaux indicateurs des échanges en termes de valeur ajoutée révèlent que les services – logistique, conception, transport, etc. – sont beaucoup plus importants pour le commerce mondial qu’il n’y paraît dans les calculs classiques des exportations et des importations.
Les progrès technologiques, des coûts de transport moins coûteux et la libéralisation des échanges ont transformé la façon dont les entreprises produisent des biens et les commercialisent dans le monde entier. Les pays qui sauront s’ouvrir aux échanges et à l’investissement et encourager l’innovation faciliteront l’intégration de leurs entreprises dans les chaînes de valeur mondiales (CVM), moteur de la croissance économique globale.
Recent studies have shown that knowledge-based capital (KBC) is an important source of economic growth in many of the world’s advanced economies (much more so than R&D alone) and is positively correlated with real GDP per capita in a cross-section of these economies. This literature is still in its infancy and there is, as yet, no systematic discussion of KBC policy. This working paper makes an attempt to fill this gap.
This review provides a quantitative and qualitative assessment of countries’ capacity in S&T and innovation. A regional synthesis highlights current performance and knowledge circulation, and country profiles describe the dynamics of national innovation systems and their relation to international knowledge flows, taking into account the wider framework conditions for innovation.
Countries/regions have begun to develop and refine regulatory approaches for foods and medical products and invest in regulatory science and other research efforts to support the responsible development of nanotechnology in these areas. This paper inventories and analyses regulatory approaches, legislative regimes and government-sponsored research programmes and infrastructure in foods and medical products that involve nanotechnology.
The Southeast Asian (SEA) region is one of the most dynamic in the world. It is in a period of transition as its national economies become strongly integrated into global knowledge networks. Science and technology (S&T) offer opportunities for countries to ‘move up the value chain’. A better understanding of existing capabilities helps enhance mutually beneficial S&T and innovation co-operation between SEA and OECD
This book evaluates the performance of the knowledge-based sector in Mexico and provides policy recommendations for improving the financing, creation and expansion of innovative knowledge-based start-ups.
The Committee on Consumer Policy is conducting a series of multi-stakeholder workshops to see how policies in key markets could be strengthened, using the framework and approaches developed in the OECD Consumer Policy Toolkit. Communication services were the topic of the first workshop, held in October 2011. This paper provides a summary of the proceedings, which focused on marketing practices, contract terms, and billing issues.
The April 2013 meeting of the OECD Global Forum saw the official launch of Scientific Collections International (SciColl), a new international network devoted to promoting interdisciplinary research that relies on scientific collections.
Environmental biotechnology is focused on clean-up and much of the policy in this area is around compliance, whereas industrial biotech has quite different policy objectives and only started to grow as a field with the worldwide interest in biofuels. Much of the world now has targets for bioenergy and favourable policy regimes to stimulate production and use of biofuels, but sustainability has become a real issue.