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Last update: August 2013
Production-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions for selected countries (2009)
Efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, such as the Kyoto Protocol, will be less effective in reducing global emissions of GHG if countries with emission commitments relocate their carbon-intensive production activities to countries without such commitments, particularly if production in the latter countries is GHG-intensive. The OECD’s input-output tables, bilateral trade in goods (BTDIxE) and services statistics (TIS) and IEA's energy statistics (e.g. fuel-combustion-based CO2 and international electricity transfer), together with other industry statistics, can be used to estimate the effects of international transfers of CO2 emissions. The simulation results highlight differences among countries in production-based emissions and consumption-based emissions.
Per capita CO2 production and consumption, 1995 and 2009
Sources: IEA CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, 2012; OECD, Inter-country Input-Output (ICIO) Data base, May 2013.
Note: If the consumption-based figure is larger than production-based CO2, the country is net CO2 importer.
OECD's trade balances of CO2 emissions (Mton CO2, 1995-2009)
Transactions within the international production network and imports and exports of final goods and services can be estimated by using an inter-country economic model based on multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modelling techniques. In order to achieve this, national Input-Output tables are first converted to a common currency (nominal USD) and the import matrices are disaggregated to separate bilateral flows of goods and services. A range of adjustments to deal with measurement issues such as re-exports; unspecified partners and commodities; and missing data, particularly for trade in services, are necessary before the analysis.
The consumption-based emissions of target country j’s resident are calculated as:
The production-based emissions of target country j’s resident are calculated as:
where hji is emission factor of final consumption of the products of country j’s sector i (hji=θji+φji), eji is industrial emissions intensity of country j’s sector i (eji=εji+ρji+σji), R is number of countries, B is Leontief inverse, N is number of sector and F1ji is final expenditure by country j for the country 1’s product of sector i.
The complete methodology can be found here: CO2 Emissions Methodology Formula