Industrie et mondialisation

21st Century Production


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To understand how to stimulate growth and generate jobs for today, policy makers and stakeholders need to understand how and where production occurs. Today’s global marketplace is characterised by a growing interconnectedness and fragmentation of production into global value chains – where at each stage, value is created that we can now increasingly measure. In parallel, value is increasingly embedded in knowledge-driven activities, like software and databases; innovative property; and economic competencies. Global value chains and the rise of knowledge-based capital raise a host of policy issues.



Global Value Chains (GVCs)

The international fragmentation of production in GVCs challenges the way we look at the global economy. Increasingly interconnected global supply chains create important opportunities for countries’ competitiveness, patterns of trade and investment, and potential for development. In parallel, GVCs have made the world increasingly interdependent. Products are no longer made somewhere, but everywhere...



Trade in Value Added (TiVA)

Traditional trade data doesn’t tell us about the value added by each country in the production of a product. The OECD and WTO's work on measuring trade in value added helps us understand who benefits from trade and by how much in terms of creation of value.



Knowledge-Based Capital (KBC)

In the 21st century, innovation based on information and knowledge is changing the way businesses invest and grow. Software, databases, research and development, new business models and skills are driving revolutionary changes. Firms in some developed economies now invest more in ideas and skills than they do in physical capital.






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