The Guidelines: One Year Later -- Biographies of Speakers
Charles Bell is Programs Director for Consumers Union, the non-profit publisher of Consumer Reports magazine and an independent non-profit testing and information organisation serving only the consumer. Mr. Bell provides staff support to Consumers Union's President, and works closely with Consumers Union's advocacy offices in California, New York, Texas and Washington, DC, on a wide range of consumer policy issues, including the Internet and e-commerce, the environment, health care and financial services.
Mr. Bell also oversees a variety of programs involving outside funding and external alliances. He manages the Web Credibility Project, a three-year program to research and develop standards for fair information practices on the Web, including the separation of advertising and editorial content, and the disclosure of financial conflicts of interest. He also oversees Consumers Union's Center for Consumer Health Choices, which provides comparative information on health insurance and health care. He manages the Colston E. Warne Program, which provides small grants and technical assistance to US and international consumer organisations. Over the last several years, Mr. Bell has visited consumer organisations in Brazil, Colombia, South Africa and Vietnam to provide technical assistance and advice regarding consumer policy issues and organisational development. In addition, Mr. Bell has written articles on health care and consumer affairs topics for a variety of publications.
Prior to joining Consumers Union in 1989, Mr. Bell worked as a research assistant for the Community Economic Stabilization Corporation, a nonprofit consulting firm in Portland, Oregon that promotes employee ownership. He also served as a research analyst at Northwest Environmental Advocates; executive director of the Oregon Fellowship of Reconciliation; and distribution coordinator for Oregon Food Share, a statewide anti-hunger program.
Mr. Bell holds a B.A. in political science from Antioch University. He studied at the Atkinson Graduate School of Management at Willamette University in Salem, Oregon, and is currently pursuing a master's degree in international business at the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs.
Martin Bond is Assistant Director of the Consumer Affairs Directorate of the Department of Trade and Industry in the United Kingdom. Mr. Bond is responsible for the Government's consumer policy in relation to e-commerce, including consumer law, self-regulation and alternative dispute resolution. He is the UK representative on the OECD Consumer Policy Committee and was a member of the UK negotiating teams on the EC directive on e-commerce and the Brussels Regulation on jurisdiction. Mr. Bond has worked previously in the private office of the Minister for Trade, and on competition policy in DTI and the Office of Fair Trading.
Attorney Maria Eugenia Bracho Gonzalez holds a law degree from the Universidad Iberoamericana. She has 14 years of experience in Mexico's federal government, where she has actively participated in the drafting and implementation of diverse legislative projects relating to foreign trade, standardization, economic competition and energy (LPG, natural gas and electricity).
Before being designated by President Fox as Federal Consumer Protection Attorney, she held appointments at the Energy Regulatory Commission, the Ministry of Trade and the Federal Competition Commission. As General Director of the Economic Policy Unit at the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE), she was in charge of the development of new regulation projects aimed at guaranteeing non-discriminatory treatment to end-users by permit holders and the provision of services in conditions of security, quality and price. At the Ministry of Trade (SECOFI), she has served as: Advisor to the Deputy Secretary of Standards and Services, General Director of Standardization, and the NAFTA negotiator responsible for market access groups, origin rules, customs, textiles, and standards. At the Federal Competition Commission (CFC), she served as General Director of Mergers and Acquisitions.
Attorney Bracho also has worked for the Ministry of Finance (SHCP) and the Treasury of the Federal District. In the private sector, she worked for the law firm Vázquez Pando, Celis Azuela y Asociados.
Michelle Childs is Head of Policy Research and Analysis at the Consumers Association in the United Kingdom. She oversees policy outputs in nine campaigning areas, as well as advises on corporate policy issues. She has a particular interest in e-commerce issues and is a member of the TACD E-Commerce Working Group.
Previously, Ms. Childs was a policy advisor at OFTEL, specialising in broadcasting and convergence, and was a solicitor in a City of London law firm.
Kellie Cosgrove has been with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission since 1997. She currently serves as an Attorney Advisor to Commissioner Mozelle Thompson and advises the Commissioner on a variety of consumer protection matters. Prior to joining Commissioner Thompson's office, she was an attorney in the FTC's Division of Financial Practices.
From 1993-1997, Ms. Cosgrove was an associate at the Washington law firm of Howrey & Simon, where she concentrated on complex insurance coverage litigation. She received her undergraduate degree from Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut, and her law degree from the University of North Carolina School of Law in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Michael Donohue has worked as an attorney in the Bureau of Consumer Protection of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission since 1997. His present position is in the Commission's international consumer protection program, with a focus on the work of the International Marketing Supervision Network and the OECD's Committee on Consumer Policy. He has served on the U.S. Delegation to the Hague Conference on Private International Law in relation to the proposed convention on jurisdiction and foreign judgements. In addition to policy work, Mr. Donohue has litigated Internet fraud and deception cases for the Commission.
John Dryden has been the Head of the Information, Computer and Communications Policy Division of the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry since January 1993. He joined the Directorate in 1987, and has held a number of other senior positions, including Head of the Science, Technology and Communications Policy Division, Head of the Economic Analysis and Statistics Division, and Head of the Scientific, Technological and Industrial Indicators Division. Between 1980 and 1987, Mr. Dryden worked in the Economics and Statistics Department of the OECD. Before joining the OECD, he worked in the Cabinet Office of the U.K. government. A United Kingdom citizen, Mr. Dryden was educated at Oxford University and the University of Wales.
As Director of Electronic Commerce at the United States Council for International Business (USCIB), David Fares is responsible for managing USCIB's electronic commerce policy program and services. USCIB is the U.S. affiliate of the International Chamber of Commerce, the Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Organization of Employers.
Before joining USCIB, Mr. Fares served as a Project Manager for the Electronics Business Connection at the New Jersey Institute of Technology; an international legal consultant at SCOR Reinsurance in Paris, France; and a staff attorney at the Franklin County, Ohio, Court of Common Pleas.
Mr. Fares is a graduate of the European Union Today and Tomorrow Programme at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (MIA), Capital University Law School (cum laude, J.D.) and the University of Notre Dame (B.A.).
Naja Felter works as Trade and Economic Issues policy officer for Consumers International, Office for Developed and Transition Economies, in London. Consumers International supports, links and represents consumer groups and agencies worldwide and strives to promote a fairer society through defending the rights of all consumers.
Ms. Felter manages Consumers International's projects on privacy and Internet shopping and co-ordinates the organisation's network on e-commerce. She represents Consumers International in e-commerce and trade issues at the OECD and other fora and has recently been invited to serve on the Advisory Committee of the American Bar Association E-commerce and ADR Task Force. She also manages a research and capacity building project on trade issues in Eastern Europe and a regional network for consumer organisations on corporate social responsibility.
Previously, she worked for the Danish central government in the Ministry of Research and IT and in the National Telecommunications Agency.
Ms. Felter has a Master's degree in law from Copenhagen University, Denmark (1995).
Anna Fielder is the Director of the Office for Developed and Transition Economies at Consumers International. As one of the four regional directors, she is responsible for the development and implementation of the organisation's strategy and work principally in Europe, the Middle East and North America.
Her office has done considerable work in the area of electronic commerce for the past four years -- developing networks of organisations working on Internet policy and issues; representation and lobbying; participation in the working group of the OECD on consumer protection guidelines for e-commerce transactions; and original, first-time policy research projects covering B2C e-commerce, privacy and alternative dispute resolution.
Before joining CI, Ms. Fielder worked for the Consumers Association, United Kingdom, where her duties included research and research management, writing consumer reports and consumer magazine editing. She has carried out many investigations and campaigns on varied subjects, such as timeshare, transport, environment and safety issues.
Ms. Fielder is a graduate of London University, with a BA Hons and a Masters in Classics.
Since 1998, Carmel Foley has been Director of Consumer Affairs in Ireland. Her appointments include to the North-South Food Safety Body and the Euro Changeover Board of Ireland.
From 1993 to 1998, Ms. Foley served as Chief Executive of the Employment Equality Agency. Before that, she served as Chief Executive of the Council for the Status of Women (1989-1993) and in the Department of Foreign Affairs diplomatic service, with postings to Washington and Luxembourg (1978-1989).
Her previous appointments include being a Board Member of the Bord na Mona, a member of the Co-ordination Committee of the Strategic Management Initiative for the reform of the Civil Service, Chairperson of the Employer-Trade Union Training Advisory Committee of FAS, and Chair of the European Advisory Committee on Equality.
Joëlle Freundlich is a legal expert and lawyer, currently working at Cegetel (Vivendi Group) in France as a regulatory expert in new technologies and electronic commerce.
Mrs. Freundlich began her career with Alcatel in the international legal department and was then Senior Legal Counsel of the national telecommunications department. She joined the Paris law firm of Archibald Andersen, where she developed a general corporate and business law practice. She then extended her practice to international arbitration and joined a firm that specialized in this field. In 1997, she joined Cegetel, a subsidiary of Vivendi, as Senior Legal Counsel for regulatory and external affairs in the field of e-commerce and new technologies. Since then, she has been working on most of the current regulatory issues raised by electronic commerce, and she has also actively taken part in the work of several business unions, organisations and forums, such as MEDEF (France), BIAC, ICRT and GBDe, on these same issues.
Regarding GBDe, she has been the European contact point for the Working Group on Jurisdiction. She is also involved in the ICANN process and, more specifically, in the DNSO work. She is currently on the Board of the ACSEL (Association pour le Commerce et services en ligne) in France.
Mrs. Freundlich received law degrees in France in international commerce and real estate and an LLM degree in the United States. She is a member of the Paris and New York Bars.
Vanessa Holliday is Director of the Compliance Branch of the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. She has worked with the ACCC for approximately six years. Primarily, Ms. Holliday's work has been in the area of merger investigations, particularly in the area of privatisation and deregulation of the energy and transport sectors in Australia. She has also worked on consumer protection and competitive conduct matters in a broad range of industries.
For the last 10 months, Ms. Holliday has been involved in the development of an e-commerce unit within the Commission, focussing on research and investigation into the competitive effects of the establishment of B2B procurement hubs, as well as consumer protection issues in e-commerce.
Prior to joining the Commission, Ms. Holliday worked as a researcher at the Centre for Media and Telecommunications Law and Policy at the University of Melbourne for two years, dealing with a broad range of issues, including broadcasting law, ownership and control rules, and telecommunications law.
Ms. Holliday holds a Bachelor of Laws and Bachelor of Commerce (Economics) from the University of Melbourne. She also holds a Graduate Diploma in Media, Communications and Information Technology Law from the University of Melbourne.
Alison Hopkins is the senior policy officer at the National Consumer Council in the United Kingdom. She has worked for the NCC since 1990, first as an information officer before moving into policy work. Before moving to London in 1990, she was a local government officer in the Northwest of England.
Her current work includes co-ordinating NCC's work on developments in e-commerce and electronic/digital delivery. She has a special interest in how e-commerce and information society services are designed and delivered, taking into account the needs of, and implications for, individual consumers and different user groups, including access issues.
Ms. Hopkins managed the NCC's major research project, e-Commerce and consumer protection, and was an author of the report (August 2000). Other related work has included being: a UK participant on a collaborative practical research study of Internet shopping, currently being repeated (Consumers@shopping; An international comparative study of electronic commerce', Consumers International, September 1999); a member of the Department for Culture, media and Sport (DCMS) Viewers' panel on digital television (November 2000, ongoing); part of the DCMS Public Information Campaign Forum, a group developing materials to improve consumers' understanding and awareness of digital television (2000); a contributor to the Department for Trade and Industry (DTI) research sub-group on e-commerce (2001); a participant in the code of practice working group for the Trust UK accreditation scheme for online codes in the UK (1999); and a member of the Policy Board of the Internet Watch Foundation (March 1999-January 2000).
Ms. Hopkins also serves as a liason with local advice networks. She is the NCC representative at meetings of the Advice Services Alliance (an umbrella group of generalist and specialist advice networks) and the NCC representative on the National Federation of Consumer Groups' 'hot issues' group. In addition, she is project manager for a pilot scheme to set up a network of individual consumers to provide NCC with a 'grass roots view' of consumer issues.
Chris Israel is Deputy Director of International Public Policy for AOL Time Warner. Mr. Israel helps develop and guide the position of the company on a number of key public policy issues around the world. This includes work on matters affecting consumer confidence in the online medium, securing an efficient and secure marketplace for online content and addressing the global digital divide.
Mr. Israel joined Time Warner Inc. in 1997 as Senior Public Policy Analyst, and became Deputy Director of International Public Policy for the newly formed AOL Time Warner in January 2001. With Time Warner Inc., he helped develop the company's approach and policies towards the protection of personal data collected online, worked on a campaign to address the safety of children online and guided Time Warner's leadership of the Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe).
Prior to joining Time Warner Inc., Mr. Israel served as a legislative aide on Capitol Hill, first with U.S. Representative Jan Meyers (R-KS) and later with U.S. Representative Todd Tiahrt (R-KS). In this capacity, he developed and oversaw several legislative projects including educational policy language passed by the House of Representatives, as well as advising on numerous issues including those pertaining to budget appropriations, banking and telecommunications.
Mr. Israel received his B.A. from the University of Kansas and will receive his M.B.A from George Washington University in late 2001.
Michael Jenkin is currently Director General of the Office of Consumer Affairs at Industry Canada. He has held a number of increasingly responsible positions in the industry department, including Director General of Strategic Planning and Corporate Development in the Operations Sector; Director General, Strategic Policy and Consultations; and Director of Economic Development Policy in the Industry and Science Policy Sector. He has worked for a number of other federal departments and agencies, including the Ministry of State for Economic and Regional Development and the Federal-Provincial Relations Office, and has served as a Science Adviser with the Science Council of Canada.
Dr. Jenkin obtained his Bachelor's degree (Honours) from Trent University in 1972. He also studied at the University of Manchester on a Commonwealth fellowship where he received an MA (Econ.) and a PhD in economics and political science. He has written a number of articles and books on federal-provincial relations and on industrial policy.
He is married with two children and lives in Ottawa.
In 1992, after six years in national administration bodies, Dirk Klasen became the Head of International Relations of Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Verbraucherverbände (AgV), the German Association of Consumer Organisations, which serves as a private-law based umbrella body for consumer organisations. From 1995 to 2000, he was the German member of the EU's Consumer Committee. Since 1997, he has been working as AgV's Economic Adviser and has focused on consumer-related policies on competition, retail, e-commerce, telecommunications, postal services, air transport and the introduction of the single European currency. In September 1998, Mr. Klasen was elected as EU-Co-Chair of the E-Commerce Working Group by the members of the Transatlantic Consumer Dialogue, TACD.
Mr. Klasen, 39, graduated in National Economy and Foreign Trade in 1986. He is married and has two children.
Brigitte Le Tavernier is currently at the Bureau of Consumer Law of the Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry of France, where she deals with general issues of consumer protection on an international level.
In the end of 1965, she joined as a civil servant the Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, where she worked in various departments, including Treasury, Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint), and the Department of economic affairs for overseas departments and territories (DOM-TOM). Since 1990, she has worked in the General Directorate for Competition, Consumer Policy and Fraud Control (DGCCRF).
Ms. Le Tavernier graduated with a degree in arts and also studied at the Institute for political studies in Lyon (France).
Tore Malterud is Director General at Norway's Ministry of Children and Family Affairs. He has served as Director General and head of the Consumer and Product Safety Department since 1992. Since November 2000, he has been in the Minister's staff as coordinator for international affairs. Mr. Malterud is a member of the Committee of Senior Officials on consumer policy under the Nordic Council of Ministers (serving in 1992 and 1997 as chairman), Chairman of the EFTA Working Group on Consumer Protection, and a member of the Coordination Committee on EEA related affairs under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
From August 1988 to November 1991, Mr. Malterud served as councilor at the Norwegian Mission to the European Community, where his fields of responsibility included, i.a., the labor market, education, environmental protection, consumer protection and product safety. Prior to 1988, he served in a number of other public policy positions, including at the Norwegian Employers' Confederation, the Association of Employers in Trade, and the Federation of Norwegian Wholesale Merchants and Importers.
In addition, Mr. Malterud is a former member of the EFTA Expert Group on Product Safety, a former member of the Advisory Committee on Import of Agriculture Products, and Vice-chairman of the Advisory Committee on Marketing of Agriculture Products. He is the author of the 1992 book Everyday Europe and has written a number of articles on the European Union.
Mr. Malterud graduated from the University of Oslo with a degree in economics in 1973. He has also received training at several other schools, including the National Institute of Technology and the Norwegian National Defense College.
Keith Manch is Head and General Manager of the New Zealand Ministry of Consumer Affairs. From 1977 to 1989, Mr. Manch was a police officer in Wellington, where he was engaged in incident and investigation duties. He was also a co-owner and director of a small clothing business for a number of years in the early 1980s.
From 1989 until 1995, Mr. Manch held a range of investigation and management positions in the competition and fair trading divisions of the Commerce Commission, which is New Zealand's national trade practices law enforcement agency. Since 1995, he has been the General Manager of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs. The Ministry is responsible for consumer policy, consumer information and education activities, trade measurement, general consumer safety and energy safety (electricity and gas) policy and administration. The Ministry has a strong focus on consumer issues in electronic commerce and works closely with the other New Zealand agencies responsible for e-commerce regulatory and economic policy issues.
Mr. Manch has been the New Zealand delegate to the OECD Consumer Policy Committee since 1996. He is a member of the Senior Officials Committee, which supports the Australian and New Zealand Ministerial Council on Consumer Affairs, and has recently been involved in some consumer protection developments in the Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation forum.
Mr. Manch is currently undertaking a Master of Communications degree at Victoria University in Wellington.
Dr. Robert N. Mayer is a professor in the Department of Family and Consumer Studies at the University of Utah in the United States. His research examines U.S. and global consumer movements, as well as the need for, and impact of, consumer protection policies. His current research projects address consumer protection and privacy in electronic commerce and consumer implications of genetic testing.
Dr. Mayer is author of The Consumer Movement: Guardians of the Marketplace (Boston: G.K.Hall/Twayne, 1989), editor of Enhancing Consumer Choice (Columbia, MO: ACCI, 1991), and associate editor (with Stephen Brobeck and Robert Herrmann) of the Encyclopedia of the Consumer Movement (Garland Press, 1997). Dr. Mayer's research has also appeared in the Journal of Consumer Affairs, Journal of Consumer Policy, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Advancing the Consumer Interest, Journal of Consumer Education, Journal of Social Issues, American Behavioral Scientist, and Journal of Advertising.
Dr. Mayer presently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Consumer Affairs, Journal of Consumer Policy, and Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. He is also a board member of the American Council on Consumer Interests (ACCI) and the National Consumers League, the oldest consumer organization in the world. Previously, he served as ACCI's delegate to Consumers International and as a board member of the Direct Selling Education Foundation. He has been a visiting researcher at the Norwegian Fund for Market and Distribution Research (1988) and the French Ministry of Telecommunications (1985-86).
Alexander Mueller was born in Gerolzhofen on 5 May 1955. After taking his school-leaving exam in 1974, he studied law and, from 1977 onwards, sociology. He graduated as a sociologist in 1985.
From 1983 to 1985, he worked in an MP's office; from 1985 to 1992, he was a full-time town councillor in Marburg; and from 1992 to 1995, he was State Secretary in the Ministry of Youth, Family and Health of the state of Hesse.
In 1982, he joined Alliance 90/the Greens and has been a member of the Hesse Parliament since April 1995. Since 26 January 2001, he has been State Secretary in the Federal Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Agriculture.
State Secretary Mueller is married with two children.
Kenji Nagamatsu is Director of the External Affairs Office of the Consumer Policy Division of the Quality-of-Life Bureau of the Cabinet Office. Prior to this, from April 2000 to January 2001, he served as Director of the Price Administration Office of the Price Coordination Division of the Price Bureau of the Economic Planning Agency.
Previously, Mr. Nagamatsu served as: Director of Road Transport Department, Kyusyu District Transport Bureau (starting April 1998); Deputy Director of Cargo Transport Policy Division, Transport Policy Bureau, Ministry of Transport (starting November 1996); Deputy Director of Labor Affairs Division, Seamen Department, Ministry of Transport (starting July 1995); Deputy Director of Coastal Shipping Division, Maritime Transport Bureau, Ministry of Transport (starting April 1994); Deputy Director of Adjustment Division, Construction Economy Bureau, Ministry of Construction (starting April 1992); Deputy Director of First Guard Division, Maritime Safety Agency (starting April 1991); Director of Regional Transport Planning Division, Kinki District Transport Bureau (starting September 1989); a member of the Economic Division, Cargo Transport Bureau, Ministry of Transport (starting in September 1987); a member of the Second Middle East Division, Middle East and Africa Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (starting in April 1986); and as a member of the General Affairs Division, Civil Aviation Bureau, Ministry of Transport (starting in April 1984).
Mr. Nagamatsu, 39, graduated from Hitotsubashi University with a degree from the Faculty of Economics in March 1984.
Mr. Risaburo Nezu, who is Japanese, was appointed OECD Director for Science, Technology and Industry on 21 August 1995. Before taking up this post, Mr. Nezu was the Deputy Director-General for Trade Negotiations, in the Minister's Secretariat of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in Tokyo.
He joined MITI in 1970 where he held a variety of posts at Deputy Director level in the International Trade Policy Bureau and the Industrial Policy Bureau. In 1983, Mr. Nezu was appointed Director of the International Trade Research Division, of the International Trade Policy Bureau.
From 1984 until 1987, he held the position of First Secretary at the Permanent Delegation of Japan to the OECD, in Paris. Returning to Tokyo, he then became Director for Planning of Basic Technology for Future Industries within the Agency for Industry, Science and Technology. He subsequently worked as Director of the International Business Affairs Division and Director of the Office for the Promotion of Foreign Investment in Japan, of the Industrial Policy Bureau. In 1990, Mr. Nezu was Director of the Iron and Steel Administration Division of the Basic Industries Bureau. Returning to France in 1991, he served as Counsellor in charge of the Trade Committee, the Industry Committee and the Economic Policy Committee for the Permanent Delegation of Japan to the OECD, until 1993.
Mr. Nezu has an MBA from Harvard Business School and a degree in Economics from the University of Tokyo.
Jytte Oelgaard is a Division Head at the Danish National Consumer Agency, which she joined in 1995. Since 1996, she has been the Chair of the OECD Committee on Consumer Policy and has also served as a Vice-Chair for the OECD Tourism Committee.
Prior to joining the Danish National Consumer Agency, Ms. Oelgaard was employed at the Ministry of Business and Industry for more than 25 years (with a leave of absence for two years when she was employed as a credit analyst in the international division of Mercantile Bank in St. Louis, Missouri).
A lawyer by profession, she has been engaged in a number of different policy areas such as stock exchange legislation, insurance law, book keeping regulation, tourism, and business regulation. She has chaired numerous committees to prepare legislation for Parliament and has worked on EU Directives and legislation. Ms. Oelgaard is a graduate of the law school at the University of Copenhagen.
Kab Won Oh is Director-General of the Welfare and Consumer Policy Bureau of the Ministry of Finance and Economy of Korea. Mr. Oh was born in 1948.
Constanze Picking has been Senior Manager for Trade and E-Business at DaimlerChrysler since 1999. She has responsibility for establishing and maintaining contacts with European institutions and international organisations (including OECD, WTO, UN/ECE, NATO, EBRD and EIB), diplomatic missions, industry associations and other interests groups. In addition, she monitors and analyses regulatory aspects of e-commerce and participates in DaimlerChrysler's strategic development on EU-related issues.
Before joining DaimlerChrysler, Ms. Picking worked for the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), the College of Europe's Poland Branch and the Central European University in Prague. She holds a Master of Advanced European Economic Studies from the College of Europe, Bruges and an MA in political science from Ludwig-Maximilian University.
Maria Reiffenstein is Head of Unit dealing with, among other issues, the co-ordination of European and international consumer affairs within the Consumer Protection Directorate in the Ministry of Justice of Austria.
In addition to the co-ordination of European and international consumer issues, her Unit deals with consumer interests in the field of health, such as foodstuffs, medicines and patients' rights; consumer interests in the field of competition; and, finally, housing law matters.
Ms. Reiffenstein studied Philosophy and Law.
Merja Saari is the Senior Legal Adviser for the Consumer Agency & Ombudsman in Finland. Current responsibilities include essential services, especially in the field of telecommunications services, and co-ordination of issues related to electronic commerce.
Merja Saari has a Master of Laws degree.
Since being appointed Director General of Action Réseau Consommateur in 1995, Nathalie St. Pierre has been involved in the activities of the various committees of this body, addressing issues such as health, nutrition, biotechnology, financial services, energy and electronic commerce. Action Réseau Consommateur is comprised of several consumer associations in Quebec involved with the protection of consumers' rights and interests.
Ms. St. Pierre was a member of the Ad Hoc preparatory Committee for the OECD Ministerial Conference on Electronic Commerce held in Ottawa and participated to two OECD Conferences on the same subject (1996 and 1998). Since 1996, she has been working with the Bureau of Consumer Policy of Industry Canada on guidelines for consumer protection in electronic commerce and their implementation. She also participated in the initiative launched by the Office of Consumer Protection in Quebec (BNQ) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) on standardization of B-to-B business.
Ms. St. Pierre is currently a student in law science at the University of Quebec in Montreal. She is a member of the School of community and public affairs at Concordia University in Montreal.
Kate Scribbins is a freelance consumer research consultant specialising in electronic commerce. She has managed two major projects for Consumers International that examined the consumer experience of electronic commerce on a global level, Consumers@Shopping 1 and Privacy@net. Ms. Scribbins' background is in consumer research. She worked at Consumers Association/Which? Magazine in the UK for nine years, managing CA's research department.
P.J.M. (Petra) Smits is Senior Policy Advisor in the Electronics, Services and Information Technology Department of the Ministry of Economic Affairs in The Netherlands.
Mrs. Smits, 33, received a degree in Political Sciences at the University of Amsterdam in 1993. She worked for several years as a project consultant in the not-for-profit sector related to international co-operation and RTD development.
In 1997, Mrs. Smits started working for the Ministry of Economic Affairs in The Netherlands. At Senter, the agency responsible for executing financial and credit schemes in the field of research and technology development, Mrs. Smits worked as the Manager of the Innovation Relay Centre Netherlands. As such, Mrs. Smits was actively involved in promoting and stimulating the transfer of knowledge and technology within the EU. Furthermore, she was project manager of a national information help desk dealing with ICT at Senter.
In 2000, Mrs. Smits started working for the Electronics, Services and Information Technology Department of the core Ministry of Economic Affairs. This Department is responsible for the co-ordination of ICT policy. One of its main objectives is to enhance the application of ICT in private enterprises and industrial sectors and, consequently, to improve value chains. Mrs. Smits is involved in issues related to self-regulation (such as codes of conduct) and e-commerce technology absorption, and she is responsible for the co-operation between the Ministry and the Dutch Consumers Association regarding e-commerce developments and the digital consumer.
Mrs. Smits has much experience in issues involving co-operation between the private and public sectors and is a national delegate to the Committee on Consumer Policy of the OECD.
Yvonne Stein is Senior Adviser in the Consumer Policy Division of the Ministry of Justice in Sweden. She is responsible for legal questions related to market law, both in a national and an international context. She also is the desk officer for e-commerce and data protection legislation in the field of consumer policy and the contact point for consumer policy in the enlargement process.
Prior to this position, Ms. Stein served at DG Health and Consumer Protection as Juridical Co-ordinator and National Expert in the Co-ordination Unit and Unit for International Relations (1999-2000) and Desk Officer for Enforcement/Juridical Co-ordinator and National Expert in the Legal Unit (1998-1999). In addition, she has served as Principal Administrative Officer and Senior Administrative Officer of the legal unit and secretariat of the Swedish Consumer Agency/Consumer Ombudsman (1989-1997); as a Swedish National Expert for the Unit for Consumers' Economic Interests at DG Health and Consumer Protection (1995); and as an Administrative Officer of the Swedish Consumer Agency/Consumer Ombudsman (1988-1989).
Ms. Stein has authored a number of articles and reports on consumer policy topics. She is a member of the Swedish Market Law Association and the Swedish Technical Information Society.
She obtained her Master of Law degree from the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1988, with special knowledge of market and international commercial law. Ms. Stein is married with two children.
Since October 1998, Dr. Alfred Tacke has served as Administrative State Secretary in the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology of Germany. In November 2000, he also became the Personal Representative of the Federal Chancellor for the World Economic Summit.
From 1991 to 1998, Dr. Tacke served as Administrative State Secretary in the Ministry of Economics, Technology and Transport of Lower Saxony. Prior to this post, he was Head of the section responsible for economic and structural policy in the State Chancery of Lower Saxony (1990) and an official of DGB, the German Trade Union Federation, in the state of Lower Saxony, where he was active in the section in charge of economic and environmental policy (1987-1990).
He was Assistant at the University of Oldenburg from 1976 to 1987, and received his Doctorate at the University of Oldenburg in 1982. Dr. Tacke also was educated at Abitur (1971) and studied economics at the Universities of Freiburg and Berlin (1971-1975).
Dr. Tacke is married and has one child. He was born in Celle in 1951.
Ms. Pamela Taylor is an e-Business Policy Advisor in the e-Business Group at the Confederation of British Industry which aims to help build UK competitiveness in the new economy by urging Government to create the appropriate regulatory framework and helping UK businesses respond to the challenge of e-business. Pamela's particular responsibilities within the Group include policy formulation in the area of building e-confidence among consumers, conducting and publishing a major survey in February 2001 of the uptake of e-business by UK companies and researching the interests of UK businesses in a number of EU proposals affecting e-business.
Ms. Taylor graduated with a Degree in Politics and International Relations from the Institut d'Etudes politiques (Sciences Po) in Paris, France and gained a Masters in European Political Administration from the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium.
Dr. Alexander Tettenborn is Deputy Head of Division (Regierungsdirektor) at the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, BMWi, in Berlin. His current work activities include negotiations of the EC E-Commerce Directive (co-ordinator at Federal level, together with the Federal Ministry of Justice) and implementation of the EC Directive on "electronic signatures" on the national level (co-ordinator at Federal level).
He has been at the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology since 1998 and has worked on Internet/media law issues since 1996. Until 1998, he was part of team "Multimedia" at the Federal Ministry of Education, Research and Science. The main task there was drafting the German Information and Communication Services Act -- IuKDG ("Internet-law") -- and co-ordinating the evaluation of the IuKDG.
Prior to that, Dr. Tettenborn served in a number of academic, legal and government-related positions. In 1985 he was an Assistant to Prof. Kruempelmann, Univ. of Mainz (penal law). From 1985 to 1988, he was a law graduate in preparatory service. In 1987, he worked as a Practitioner at a law firm in Los Angeles (Evans & Harter). From 1989 to 1990, he was a lawyer at a law firm in Cologne, Germany. From 1991 to 1992, he was at the Federal Ministry of Education in Berlin, advising on transition questions concerning the former German Democratic Republic. From 1992 to 1996, he served at the Federal Ministry of Education, Research and Science in Bonn, advising on the government programme for Eastern European Countries.
His educational background includes: Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, studies of law (1978-1980); Vanderbilt University, studies of political science through a Fulbright Scholarship (1980-1981); Johannes-Gutenberg University, continuation of the studies of law (1981-1984); first state examination (1984); second state examination (1988); and University of Virginia, Master of Laws, LL.M, (1989-1990).
Dr. Tettenborn was born in Berlin in 1956.
Mozelle Thompson was sworn in as a Commissioner of the Federal Trade Commission in 1997. He currently leads the U.S. delegation to the OECD Committee on Consumer Policy where he also serves as Vice Chair. Mr. Thompson is also President of the International Marketing Supervision Network (IMSN), an association of international consumer protection enforcement agencies.
Prior to his service as Commissioner, Mr. Thompson was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury where he was responsible for overseeing domestic spending and credit policies, including the operations of the Federal Financing Bank and the Office of Government Financing. Before joining federal government, he served as Senior Vice President and General Counsel to the New York State Finance Agency. Mr. Thompson was also an attorney with the New York firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom.
Mr. Thompson is a graduate of Columbia College and Columbia Law School. He holds an MPA from Princeton University.
Since 1992, Hubert van Breemen has served as senior adviser at the Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers, VNO-NCW. He holds responsibilities in the consumer policy area, the product safety and product liability area, the environmental area, and on issues of standardisation, certification and accreditation in the context of preventing barriers to trade, and e-commerce.
On behalf of VNO-NCW, Mr. van Breemen is a member of many official advisory bodies to the Dutch government on general and specific consumer policy issues. He represents VNO-NCW in the bilateral dialogue with the Dutch Consumentenbond on comparative testing. He is a member of the board of the Dutch Ecolabelling Foundation and of Milieu Centraal, the Dutch organisation for giving environmental information to consumers. He represents VNO-NCW in the consumer policy committee of the Dutch Standardisation Institute (NNI). He is on the advisory boards of NNI and the Dutch Accreditation Institutes. He is the representative of VNO-NCW in several UNICE, BIAC (i.a. chairman of the BIAC taskforce on consumer policy) and ICC committees on consumer/marketing, product safety and product liability and environmental issues.
From 1977 until 1992, Mr. van Breemen held positions at several Dutch ministries. He started in 1977 in the consumer policy area at the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, and left in 1992 as head of the consumer safety department of the Dutch Ministry of Health. He has been responsible in the latter capacity, among other things, for the Dutch consumer product safety law and the Dutch Consumer Safety Institute. He also represented the Dutch government in many national, European and international organisations (e.g. OECD and WHO).
He was born in 1952 and graduated in 1975 as an economist from the Erasmus University in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.