SESSION 1: Intellectual Assets in Health: Current Inefficiencies and Future Trends
What are the intellectual assets of the health and biomedical sector? How are these identified, reported, valued and exploited? Are there inefficiencies in the way existing intellectual assets are used in the health sector? Are certain intellectual assets under-used or under-shared? This session gave an overview of the types of knowledge, be it data, products, know-how or networks for which the existence of a knowledge market would open new commercial possibilities for both the suppliers and users.
Underused and Undershared knowledge in bio-medicine Fiona MURRAY, MIT Sloan School of Management, United States
Breaking the Rosetta Stone: Patient Data as the Key Asset to Accelerate Medical Research Greg SIMON, President, FasterCures, United States
Intellectual assets and Information Asymmetry in the BIO and Pharmaceutical industries Jonathan KLEIN-EVANS, MedImmune, United States
What is new about Markets for Technology: The recent Business and Economics Literature Ashish ARORA, Carnegie Melon University, NBER, United States
SESSION 2: Knowledge Markets in Theory and Practice – What are they and what do they do?
How are Knowledge Markets defined and how do these modes of organisation improve the management and exploitation of different intellectual assets? What types of knowledge markets exist already and in which industries? What lessons can be drawn about their applicability to the health sector? This session explored the different modes for making available, valuing and trading knowledge and information including: warehouses, clearinghouses, auctions, brokerages, pools. It drew on the experiences in other sectors (e.g., information technology, engineering IP, journalism).
What are Knowledge Markets? Problems and Paradoxes Brian KAHIN, University of Michigan, and Computer & Communications Industry Association, United States
Tapping a Network: Approaches and Applications Alph BINGHAM, Co-Founder and Member Board of Directors, InnoCentive, United States
Intellectual assets – creating national wealth in the 21st century Claude RUBINOWICZ, Chief Executive, Agency for Public Intangibles of France (APIE), France
SESSION 3: What is the Policy interest in Knowledge Markets for Health?
Why is the emergence of knowledge markets in health of interest to OECD countries and beyond? What are the potential economic spill-overs or contributions to public health that knowledge markets can help achieve?
Reduced Drug Development Costs and Improved Clinical Care Joe FECZKO, Chief Medical Officer, Pfizer Inc., United States
Applying Genomics to Health care: Drug development, treatment avoidance Sam ABRAHAM, Vice President Strategic Relations, BC Cancer Agency, Canada
The TI Pharma Strategy Willem de LAAT, Managing Director, TI Pharma, The Netherlands
SESSION 4: Existing Infrastructures for Knowledge Pooling and Sharing
A variety of “pre-competitive” consortia in the life sciences have recently been created – many of these with the involvement of the NIH/NCI in the US. These seek to pool research results, and in some cases, even create standards for use in regulatory approval processesWhat can be learned from present experiences? What knowledge resources that were once proprietary are being shared more broadly? What arrangements appeal to the private sector?
Overview of NCI/NIH initiatives for knowledge access and use Ken BUETOW, NCI Chief Information Officer, Director of the Centre for Bioinformatics, United States
Collaborative Knowledge Networks for Physicians Iwan von WARTBURG, University of Hamburg, Germany
Clinical Trials: registration, results reporting and data sharing Jerry SHEEHAN, National Library of Medicine, United States
The Biomarkers Consortium and the Genetic Association Information Network David WHOLLEY, Director, Biomarkers Consortium, United States
SESSION 5: Niche Brokering: Finding New Users for Old Knowledge
This session discussed how proprietary knowledge that has no immediate value to the owner (for example older molecules or failed clinical trial data) can find new markets or can be repurposed, shared and exploited, for different uses or markets leading to new products and services. Services are emerging to match the holders of such knowledge with those that have a new use for it. What are the challenges niche-brokers have to address? Is such brokering become more common; is there data on the frequency of its use; and is it scalable?
Repurposing Technologies with low NPV for Infectious Disease treatment Wendy TAYLOR, Founder and Vice President of Strategy and Operations, BIO Ventures for Global Health, United States
How Pharmacogenetics may bring new life to failed drugs Wayne ROSENKRANS, Chairman, Personalized Medicine Coalition, United States
SESSION 6: The Future of Knowledge Markets: Opportunities and Challenges
(Moderated panel discussion)
Looking forward, what are the factors pushing or impeding the greater exchange of knowledge in the health sector? In some cases the competitive value of the data to the owner prevents it from being shared or traded without the appropriate incentives or regulation in place. In other cases, operational difficulties such as asset valuation, interoperability of data, and information asymmetries make data pooling difficult. What types of data, information and knowledge might be ripe for pooling or exchange and what types are unlikely to ever be? What is pushing the creation of knowledge markets forward?
The Future of Sharing access to compound Libraries Paul WYATT, Director of Drug Discovery, University of Dundee, United Kingdom
Algorithms, data structures and web computing for data mining in Biomedicine Jonas ALMEIDA, Dept of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, United States
Pooling toxicology Data and Drug screening tests Frederico GOODSAID, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, FDA, United States
SESSION 7: Application of Knowledge Markets beyond Health
Just like the greater exploitation of knowledge can create added value and increase efficiency in drug development and health outcomes, so too might the trading and sharing of knowledge create greater value along the industrial biotechnology value cycle, or foster innovation in the development of synthetic biology. This session explored where and how knowledge markets are applicable in biotechnology sectors beyond health.
A Knowledge Market Prototype: From Conception to Execution Wolfgang MAASS, Director of the Research Centre for Intelligent Media, Hoschule Furtwangen University, Germany
Knowledge Markets and IT in the Life Sciences Sylvia SPENGLER, Division of Information and Intelligent System, National Science Foundation, United States
SESSION 8: What are the Forces and Incentives Facing Knowledge Markets
(Moderated panel discussion)
What are the trends in the valuation of pharma/biotech knowledge and what is the impact on knowledge management? What pressures, financial or otherwise, are driving the creation of markets for knowledge intensive intellectual assets and what are the challenges? Is better knowledge management important in valuing companies? What interests do scientists, investors, policy makers and the industry have to increase valuation, access to and interoperability of knowledge assets?
Measurement, reporting and valuation of intellectual assets: The Investor view Alexander WELZL, European Coordinator, Commission on Intellectual Capital, European Federation of Financial Analysts Societies (EFFAS)
Intellectual Capital Reporting – Two business cases from Healthcare and Bio-medicine Michael KIMBROUGH, Harvard Business School, United States
Securitisation of Clinical Trials Peter BROWN, SecureAid, United Kingdom
SESSION 9: What can Governments do?
What can governments do to help the emergence of knowledge markets move forward? What might impede their creation? What is the role of competition policy, regulatory policy, accountancy standards, or the articulation of industry standards? Should governments encourage such structures or be involved in setting up prototypes?
Moderated panel discussion with a selection of representatives from across the OECD.
Bénédicte CALLAN Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, OECD
Lisa DROUILLARD Health Canada, Canada
Bart WIJNBERG Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, The Netherlands
Winston BAATJES Department of Science and Technology, South Africa