Publications & Documents

  • 8-juin-2020


    Base de données sur la distribution des revenus : gini, pauvreté, revenus, méthodes et concepts

    Coefficients de Gini, taux de pauvreté, revenus, etc. Les revenus sont plus également répartis et il y a moins de gens pauvres lorsque les dépenses sociales sont importantes : c’est ce qu’on observe dans les pays nordiques et dans les pays d’Europe occidentale comme l’Autriche, la Belgique et les Pays-Bas.

  • 5-June-2020


    Taking Public Action to End Violence at Home - Summary of Conference Proceedings

    Violence against women remains a global crisis. Worldwide, more than one in three women have experienced physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime. OECD’s inaugural conference on violence against women, entitled 'Taking Public Action to End Violence at Home,' facilitated a survivor-centred exchange of ideas and experiences. Held on 5-6 February 2020, attendees convened to share experiences, practices and ideas on how to prevent, address, and eradicate intimate partner violence (IPV), a particularly insidious form of violence against women. Just a few weeks after this OECD conference concluded, the regional health crisis of COVID-19 in Asia had turned into a global pandemic. In less than a month, the entire world was grappling with the massive health, social, and economic effects of the crisis – including the consequences of millions of women becoming trapped at home with their abusers, as governments implemented containment measures to stop the spread of the virus. The issues, challenges, and solutions to intimate partner violence that were debated at OECD conference have taken on a new and even more pressing urgency in the face of the global crisis.
  • 2-juin-2020


    Comparez votre revenu

    Lorsque vous pensez au revenu de votre foyer, vous estimez-vous riche, pauvre ou dans la moyenne ? La plupart d’entre nous n’ont aucune idée ou se trompent sur leur situation par rapport au reste de la population. Mais ici, en 10 clics, vous pourrez voir combien de ménages sont mieux ou moins bien lotis que vous et confronter votre vision d’un monde idéal à la réalité.

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  • 2-June-2020


    Protecting children online - An overview of recent developments in legal frameworks and policies

    The digital environment presents a wide range of benefits to children, whilst also exposing them to various risks, including cyberbullying, harmful content and inappropriate contact with strangers. This report provides an overview of the legal and policy actions that governments, international organisations and other stakeholders have taken to ensure a safe and beneficial digital environment for children. It considers actions taken to keep pace with technological developments, to ensure children can realise the benefits of the digital environment, and to respond to the changing digital risk landscape. The report also informed the revision of the 2012 OECD Recommendation of the Council on the Protection of Children Online, which aims to bring it into line with current and anticipated future needs of children in the digital environment.
  • 29-May-2020

    English, PDF, 1,247kb

    Is Childcare Affordable?

    Building on information from the OECD Tax-Benefit Models and the OECD Family Database, this policy brief looks at childcare costs, their effect on financial incentives to work, and the barriers parents with very young children face when trying to avoid and escape poverty. The brief includes a discussion of policy options for making childcare more affordable.

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  • 25-May-2020


    Decentralisation and inter-governmental relations in the housing sector

    Based on a survey, this paper presents new data on the decentralisation of the housing system and co-ordination mechanisms across levels of government, focusing on the provision of social housing. Decision-making in social housing tends to be more devolved to sub-national actors, as compared to other key public services. Policy decision making tends to be more centralised, while sub-national governments and housing providers have more control over decisions regarding the inputs, outputs and monitoring of social housing. Governments globally have implemented a mix of housing policy interventions. Demand side interventions include tax allowances and subsidies to facilitate the purchase of a home or the provision of social housing in the rental market to those in need. Interventions to influence the supply of housing are generally aimed at housing developers or sub-national governments, to stimulate housing construction. There are a number of policy tools readily available to sub-national governments to improve housing outcomes, including the implementation and reform of taxes on immovable property and the relaxation of restrictive land use regulations.
  • 30-avril-2020


    Les impôts sur les salaires 2020

    Cette publication phare annuelle contient des informations détaillées sur les impôts payés sur les salaires dans les pays de l’OCDE. Elle couvre les impôts sur le revenu et les cotisations de sécurité sociale payés par les salariés, les cotisations de sécurité sociale et taxes sur les salaires versées par leurs employeurs, et les transferts en espèces perçus par les travailleurs. L’objectif est de montrer comment ces taxes et prestations sont calculées dans chaque pays membre et d’examiner leurs impacts sur le revenu des ménages. Les résultats permettent aussi de faire des comparaisons internationales quantitatives des coûts de main-d’œuvre et de la situation globale vis-à-vis de l’impôt et des prestations des célibataires et des familles à différents niveaux de revenus. Cette publication présente des taux effectifs moyens et marginaux d’imposition sur les coûts de main-d’œuvre pour huit types de ménages représentatifs dont le niveau du salaire et la composition diffèrent (célibataires, parents isolés, couples avec un ou deux salaires et avec ou sans enfant). Les taux moyens d’imposition mettent en évidence le pourcentage de la rémunération brute ou des coûts de main-d’œuvre représenté par les impôts et les prélèvements sociaux, avant et après transferts en espèces, et les taux marginaux d’imposition correspondent à la partie d’une augmentation minime de la rémunération brute ou des coûts de main-d’œuvre reversée sous la forme d’impôts. L’édition 2020 des Impôts sur les salaires inclut une étude spéciale intitulée « L’influence des systèmes fiscaux sur le choix de la forme d’emploi ». Note : La partie II, Informations détaillées par pays, n’est disponible qu’en version anglaise.
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  • 22-avril-2020


    Table ronde virtuelle des femmes dirigeantes sur le COVID-19 et l’avenir : plaçons les femmes et les filles au centre des mesures de réponse

    Le 20 avril 2020, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Directrice exécutive d’ONU Femmes, et Gabriela Ramos, Directrice de Cabinet et Sherpa de l’OCDE au G20, ont organisé et présidé la Table ronde virtuelle des femmes dirigeantes sur le COVID-19 et l’avenir en vue d’atténuer l’impact négatif disproportionné de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur les femmes et les filles.

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  • 15-April-2020


    Housing policies for sustainable and inclusive cities - How national governments can deliver affordable housing and compact urban development

    In a context marked by rapid urbanisation, growing housing demand and the worsening impacts of climate change, national governments play a vital role in delivering environmentally sustainable cities with adequate and affordable housing. This paper reviews national housing policy instruments from around the world, analysing their impacts on compact urban development and housing affordability. First, the paper proposes a framework to better understand the housing market in cities by outlining drivers of housing supply and demand as well as the constitution of the housing market and its segments: homeowners and renters, single- and multi-family homes, market and below-market price segments. Next, the paper analyses a range of policy options available to national governments, which are summarised and evaluated according to their impacts on compactness and affordability. Last, the paper provides short-, medium- and long-term policy recommendations to align national housing policies with the goal of delivering more sustainable and inclusive cities. The paper is one of the first attempts to consider the intersection of physical urban form and housing affordability from a national policy perspective.
  • 10-April-2020


    OECD Skills Strategy Slovak Republic - Assessment and Recommendations

    Skills are the key to shaping a better future and central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in an increasingly interconnected and rapidly changing world. Megatrends such as globalisation, technological advances and demographic change are reshaping work and society, generating a growing demand for higher levels and new sets of skills. OECD Skills Strategy projects provide a strategic and comprehensive approach to assess countries’ skills challenges and opportunities and help them build more effective skills systems. The OECD works collaboratively with countries to develop policy responses that are tailored to each country’s specific skills needs. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy Framework, which allows for an exploration of what countries can do better to 1) develop relevant skills over the life course; 2) use skills effectively in work and in society; and 3) strengthen the governance of the skills system. This report, 'OECD Skills Strategy Slovak Republic: Assessment and Recommendations', identifies opportunities and makes recommendations to strengthen the skills of youth, reduce skills imbalances, foster greater participation in adult learning and strengthen the use of skills in the workplace.
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