Over the past ten years economic growth in Asia has contributed to a reduction of poverty as well as fertility rates, and greater prosperity has contributed to gains in life expectancy. However, at present many workers still work in informal employment, frequently for long hours at little pay and without social protection coverage. A growing demand for social support, extending the coverage of social protection benefits and improving the job quality of workers will be among Asia’s major challenges in future. This report considers these challenges, providing policy examples from countries to illustrate good practice, including Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore and Viet Nam.
The OECD/Korea Policy Centre fosters the exchange of technical information and policy experiences relating to the Asia Pacific region in areas such as health statistics, pension reforms and social policy and expenditure.
This report examines the effects of recent economic growth in Viet Nam on social cohesion. It finds that recent rapid economic growth in Viet Nam has not resulted in an increase in overall inequality, but the level of inequality was already high. Growth was not particularly inclusive, benefiting most the middle class and the richest households, and favouring less households in the bottom 20th percentile. Income mobility was also high, and while a majority of households experienced upward income mobility, downward absolute income mobility affected one in five households. Economic growth was not particularly job rich with employment growth lagging behind economic expansion.
In particular, important challenges were identified in the area of education and skills policies relating to fast-changing labour market needs. Minimum wage policies had a small but positive effect on employment, but concerns were highlighted over partial coverage and weak compliance. Tax policy and specifically personal income tax had only a small impact on reducing inequality, but transfers from central to local governments produced an equalising effect, albeit with mixed results in terms of satisfaction with public services. Finally, social protection systems have been extended, but important coverage gaps remain among the poor and ethnic minority groups, and informality remains a key challenge for universal extension.
Viet Nam achieved sustained growth over the past decade accompanied by impressive progress in poverty reduction and the emergence of a large middle class, according to the latest OECD Development Centre’ Social Cohesion Policy Review of Viet Nam.
Society at a Glance – Asia/Pacific Edition 2011 offers a concise quantitative overview of social trends and policies across Asia/Pacific countries and economies.
Society at a Glance – Asia/Pacific Edition 2009 offers a concise quantitative overview of social trends and policies across Asia-Pacific economies.
Society at a Glance - Asia/Pacific Edition 2009 looks at social trends and policy developments in Asia-Pacific countries, using indicators similar to those in OECD’s recently published Society at a Glance 2009 (focused on OECD economies).
De nombreux pays asiatiques devront réformer leurs systèmes de pension pour assurer aux travailleurs d’aujourd’hui des revenus pérennes et suffisants au moment de la retraite : telle est la conclusion d’un nouveau rapport de l’OCDE.