Politiques scientifiques et technologiques

OECD-MOST Workshop on Indicators for Assessing National Innovation Systems, 19-20 October 2006, Chongqing, China


OECD-MOST Workshop on Indicators for Assessing National Innovation Systems

Background - Objectives - Agenda and presentations


The Workshop on Indicators for Assessing National Innovation Systems was organised by the OECD and Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China, as part of the implementation of the Indicator module of the OECD-China National Innovation System (NIS) project. It provided a forum for exchanges of experience and mutual learning on the best practices in some OECD countries and the current S&T indicator system in China, to explore ways on how to better address the information needs for measuring and monitoring the NIS, and for supporting evidence-based policy making, through improving the existing indicators, and developing new ones. Senior experts from China and from 11 OECD member countries as well as South Africa participated in the one-and-half-day Workshop.


  • To take an overview of the current Chinese S&T indicator system, in the context of China’s fast-evolving information need for evidence-based policy-making and policy analysis, arising from its rapid economic development and internationalisation.
  • To exchange experience between OECD countries and China and to explore ways to address the emerging needs for new indicators in various S&T fields, such as those related to the globalisation of R&D, and international and domestic mobility of human resource for S&T.
  • To take stock of the available S&T indicators and statistical information, as an input from the indicator module to the other three modules of the OECD project.

Session I: NIS indicator systems: input, linkage and performance
This session discussed the conceptual framework and compared indicator systems in OECD countries and in China, including definitions, scopes and comparability of these indicator systems.
Special attention was given to indicators for measuring output/performance of NIS, including both traditional S&T performance indicators such as patents and publications and more broadly defined performance indicators, such as productivity and competitiveness in both domestic and international markets.
Linkages between input-output and among the key actors in NIS are important, albeit indirect, determinants for the performance of NIS. Session I explored what indicators are available, and should be developed, for assessing the linkages between S&T activities, technology transfer, institutional development and the interactions between these forces.

Session II: Methodology and practices in S&T and innovation policy benchmarking
This session discussed the methodology and best-practices, as well as limitations and lessons learnt in policy benchmarking in some OECD countries. Presentations in this session were organised into two parts: the first, to introduce the benchmarking experiences of some OECD countries, and the second, to explore the indicator and policy connections.

Session III: Indicators on globalisation of R&D
Today, there is an increasing challenge in both OECD countries and China in measuring the various facets of globalisation of R&D. This session took stock of what indicators are available in China and in OECD countries for monitoring the globalisation of R&D, in the form of multinationals’ R&D activities, cross-border ownership of inventions, international co-operation in S&T in both private and public sectors and internationalisation of high-tech manufacturing sectors. It explored what new indicators should be developed, and the efforts under way in OECD countries and in China in addressing the need for new indicators.

Session IV: Indicators on the stock and mobility of HRST
While the stock of HRST can be measured to a large extent by available indicators, measuring the mobility of HRST is much more difficult. This session took stock of the available indicators on HRST in China, and discussed the OECD work under way to develop methodology for measuring the international mobility of HRST. For the domestic HRST mobility, a potential attempt of investigating the mobility in Chinese research institutions was explored.    


Agenda and presentations

(Presentations as provided by speakers)

Thursday 19 October 2006

Opening remarks

  • Cai Jaining, Director, Division for International Organizations and Conferences, Department for International Cooperation, Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST)
  • Liang Zhen, Director-General, Science & Technology Committee of Chongqing Municipal Government
  • Dirk Pilat, Head of Science and Technology Policy Division, OECD

Keynote speeches

  • Fred Gault, Director, Science, Innovation and Electronic Information Division, Statistics Canada; and Chair, OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators: “Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators in the OECD: Next Steps”
  • Wang Yuan, President of National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development (NRCSTD): “New Challenges for  Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators”

Session I: NIS indicator systems: input, linkage and performance

Chair: Mu Rongping, President, Institute of Policy & Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS)

  • Martin Schaaper, Statistician, Economic Analysis and Statistics (EAS) Division, OECD: “Indicators for a knowledge-based economy: the OECD perspective”
  • Simon Ellis, Head of Science Culture and Communications Statistics, UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) “Measuring innovation in China ”
  • Gao Changlin, Professor, NRCSTD: “Chinese Science and Technology Indicators System: toward an Innovation-based Nation”
  • Lu Yongbo, Professor, Vice Director of the Institute of System Engineering and Control, Beijing Jiaotong University: “Disparity of Chinese Regional Science and Technology System”

Session II: Methodology and practices in S&T and innovation policy benchmarking

Chair: Jean Guinet, Principal Administrator, S&T Policy Division, OECD

Benchmarking methodology and practices:

  • Rainer Frietsch, Senior Researcher, Fraunhofer Institute for System and Innovation Research, Germany: “Measuring and Benchmarking Innovation Performance”
  • Song Weiguo, Professor, NRCSTD: “Benchmarking National Innovation Capability: Indicators Framework and Primary Findings”

Indicators/Policy connections:

  • Sture Öberg, Director General, ITPS (Institute for Growth Policy Study), Sweden: “Indicators for Policy making”
  • He Ping, Professor of National Institute of Statistics, “Theory and Practice of Statistical Monitoring on the Science and Technology Advancement in China”

Panel discussion of Day I

Chair: Dirk Pilat, Head of Science and Technology Policy Division, OECD


  • Fred Gault, Director, Science, Innovation and Electronic Information Division, Statistics Canada
  • Tim Brown, Dean of the Faculty of Science, The Australian National University
  • Mu Rong-Ping, President, Institute of Policy and Management, CAS 
  • Gao Changlin, Professor, NRCSTD, MOST
  • Gernot Hutschenreiter, Administrator, Science and Technology Policy Division, OECD


Friday 20 October 2006

Parallel Session III: Indicators on globalisation of R&D

Chair: Gao Changlin, Professor, NRCSTD, MOST

  • Max von Zedtwitz, Professor of Strategy & Innovation Management, Tshinghua University: “Internationalization of R&D: Perspectives from Outside and Inside of China”
  • Patrik Gustavsson, Assistant Professor, Stockholm School of Economics: “Data and the mirroring of technology, innovation, and globalization: Lessons from Scandinavia”
  • Liang Zheng, Ph.D, Lecturer, China Institute for Science and Technology Policy (CISTP), Tsinghua University: “Multinational R&D in China-Myth and Realities”
  • Luo Yafei, Professor, Beijing Industrial University: “The Research of R&D Internationalization--Based on Chinese Current S&T Statistics”

Parallel Session IV: Indicators on the stock and mobility of HRST

Chair: Yoshiaki Tojo, Head of Economic Analysis and Statistics Division, OECD

  • Laudeline Auriol, Administrator, Economic Analysis and Statistics Division, OECD: “A role for China in the global work on HRST”
  • Kiwan Kim, Director, Innovation Infrastructure and Policy Team, Korea Institute of S&T Evaluation and Planning (KISTEP), Korea: “Current Efforts to Expand Indicators on HRST in Korea”
  • Mu Rongping, President, Institute of Policy & Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS): “Key Issues About Human Resources for Innovation in Enterprises”
  • Li Xiaoxuan, Professor, Institute of Policy & Management (IPM), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS): “Investigation on Engineers in Chinese State-owned Enterprises”
  • Cheng Bangwen, Professor, Huazhong Science and Technology University: “Mobility of HRST in Chinese Government Research Institutes”


Related Documents


Measuring China's Innovation System: National Specificities and International Comparisons (STI Working Paper 2009/1)

OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China


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