Open science commonly refers to efforts to make the output of publicly funded research more widely accessible in digital format to the scientific community, the business sector, or society more generally.
All countries are investing in health data. There are however significant cross-country differences in data availability and use. Some countries stand out for their innovative practices enabling privacy-protective data use while others are falling behind with insufficient data and restrictions that limit access to and use of data, even by government itself. Countries that develop a data governance framework that enables privacy-protective data use will not only have the information needed to promote quality, efficiency and performance in their health systems, they will become a more attractive centre for medical research. After examining the current situation in OECD countries, a multi-disciplinary advisory panel of experts identified eight key data governance mechanisms to maximise benefits to patients and to societies from the collection, linkage and analysis of health data and to, at the same time, minimise risks to the privacy of patients and to the security of health data. These mechanisms include coordinated development of high-value, privacy-protective health information systems, legislation that permits privacy-protective data use, open and transparent public communication, accreditation or certification of health data processors, transparent and fair project approval processes, data de-identification and data security practices that meet legal requirements and public expectations without compromising data utility and a process to continually assess and renew the data governance framework as new data and new risks emerge.
This document gives a recommendations on the Use of Assessment Factors for Intra- and Interspecies Differences in Human Health Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.
La République tchèque se distingue depuis longtemps par sa capacité d’innovation et sa créativité. Après tout, elle est la patrie de l’écrivain Karel Čapek, qui a inventé le mot « robot » en 1921. Soixante-dix ans plus tard, Jan et Zdenak Sverak définissaient la créativité tchèque dans leur film L’École élémentaire, nominé aux Oscars, à travers le personnage du bricoleur sachant tout faire, tout réparer.
Engineered nano-objects and their agglomerates and aggregates are handled today in workplaces that span broad occupational environments. The three-tiered approach described in this document is not intended to be a risk assessment strategy, but part of a risk management and mitigation strategy.
Today the OECD marks the end of a seven year experimental testing programme, investigating 11 commercially viable nanomaterials across 110 chemical tests. The results were co-ordinated across 11 countries with tests and data generated from government agencies, universities, research institutions and businesses. Over 780 studies on the specific properties of nanomaterials were undertaken.
Les participants à la Réunion annuelle du Conseil de l’OCDE au niveau des Ministres, placée sous la présidence des Pays-Bas, ont réaffirmé le soutien des pays Membres à un large éventail de travaux menés par l’OCDE, qu’il s’agisse d’améliorer la qualité et l’efficacité de l’investissement ou de soutenir l’initiative relative aux Nouvelles approches face aux défis économiques.
This report looks at a variety of inclusive innovation initiatives and innovative products aimed at improving the welfare of lower-income and excluded groups, notably in terms of essential public services (education, infrastructure and health). It discusses the policy trade-offs between traditional innovation policies and a more inclusive innovation approach, and provides recommendations for aligning current policies. It also deals with the impacts of innovation and innovation policies on industrial and territorial inclusiveness, describing how information and communication technology (ICT) and technology diffusion may influence smaller firms’ chances of succeeding with their innovations.
This paper investigates the factors that influence the international mobility of research scientists using a new measure of mobility derived from changes in affiliations reported by publishing scientists in a major global index of scholarly publications over the period 1996-2011.
Volume II of this series compiles the science-based consensus documents of the OECD Task Force for the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds from 2009 to 2014. They contain information for use during the regulatory assessment of food/feed products of modern biotechnology, i.e. developed from transgenic crops. Relevant information includes compositional considerations (nutrients, anti-nutrients, toxicants, allergens), use of the plant species as food/feed, key products and components suggested for analysis of new varieties for food use and for feed use, and other elements. These documents should be of value to applicants for commercial uses of novel foods and feeds, regulators and risk assessors in national authorities for their comparative approach, as well as the wider scientific community.