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Publications & Documents


  • 7-November-2018

    English

    Stemming the Superbug Tide - Just A Few Dollars More

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a large and growing problem with the potential for enormous health and economic consequences, globally. As such, AMR has become a central issue at the top of the public health agenda of OECD countries and beyond. In this report, OECD used advanced techniques, including machine learning, ensemble modelling and a microsimulation model, to provide support for policy action in the human health sector. AMR rates are high and are projected to grow further, particularly for second- and third-line antibiotics, and if no effective action is taken this is forecasted to produce a significant health and economic burden in OECD and EU28 countries. This burden can be addressed by implementing effective public health initiatives. This report reviews policies currently in place in high-income countries and identifies a set of ‘best buys’ to tackle AMR that, if scaled up at the national level, would provide an affordable and cost-effective instrument in the fight against AMR.
  • 22-October-2018

    English

    Scientific Advice During Crises - Facilitating Transnational Co-operation and Exchange of Information

    This report looks at how scientific advice can best support crisis management during transnational crises, such as those provoked by natural hazards or pandemics. Scientific advice has an important role to play in all phases of the crisis management cycle - preparedness, response and recovery.  It can be particularly valuable during the sense-making period when a crisis occurs and develops.  However, this value is dependent on the quality and timeliness of the advice and most importantly its relevance to the decisions that crisis managers and policy-makers have to make during a crisis. Generating rigorous scientific advice requires access to relevant data, information and expertise, across scientific disciplines and across borders. Ensuring this advice is useful requires effective connections between scientific advisory processes and crisis management mechanisms, including at the international level.
  • 16-October-2018

    English

    Effective operation of competitive research funding systems

    This policy paper analyses existing competitive research funding mechanisms and their effectiveness, taking into account a variety of contextual factors. It focuses on the efficiency of funding allocation mechanisms relative to their objectives and includes policy recommendations.

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  • 10-October-2018

    English, PDF, 5,822kb

    Discover the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation

    We cover a vast range of topics, developing evidence-based policy advice on the contribution of science, technology and innovation to economies and societies. From business dynamics and productivity to GVCs and the evolution of the digital economy, and from innovation for social challenges to alleviating excess capacity in heavy industries, we seek to provide new insights for policymakers. We also "go national" with in-depth reviews.

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  • 10-October-2018

    English

    How Global Trade Can Promote Growth for All

    I am delighted to join you in Bali for today’s high-level event on How Global Trade Can Promote Growth for All. I would like to thank our co-hosts – the WTO, IMF, and World Bank, as well as the Australian Government – for their support and commitment to addressing this important issue.

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  • 5-October-2018

    English

    How is research policy across the OECD organised? Insights from a new policy database

    Building on a newly created policy indicator database, this paper provides a first systematic comparison of the governance of public research policy across 35 OECD countries from 2005 to 2017.

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  • 4-October-2018

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in China

    The expansion of agricultural production in China has been remarkable, but at the expense of the sustainable use of its natural resources. To counter this, as well as to face problems due to rising labour costs and a rapidly ageing rural population, agricultural production must concentrate on a smaller number of more productive farms. It is in this light that this report reviews recent policy developments to assess whether they have been conducive to productivity growth and environmental sustainability. It finds that the conditions for structural change and innovation at the farm level in China could be further improved by securing the long-term stability of land rights as well as reducing transaction costs. Greater policy coherence with agri-environmental policy objectives could also be achieved through stricter enforcement of environmental regulations. Finally, the agricultural innovation system could play a greater role by placing the focus on public agricultural R&D in areas such as the environment and resource conservation, and in other areas which do not attract much private sector investment. 
  • 1-October-2018

    English

    Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in The Netherlands

    The higher education sector in The Netherlands offers excellent examples of what it means to be innovative and entrepreneurial, and promote entrepreneurial mind sets, entrepreneurship and knowledge exchange. Creating value from academic knowledge through innovative services, products, processes and business models that meet economic, social and environmental needs lies at the core of this strategy. The current challenge is to strenghten the anchoring of value-creation processes in education and research. This can be achieved through increased interdisciplinarity, entrepreneurial mindset development across all subject areas, incentives for effective wider world engagement of researchers and students, and growth-oriented support for startups. This report presents an in-depth analysis of the policy framework and institutional practices and provides useful guidance for policy makers and university leaders across the world. HEInnovate is a joint initiative of the European Commission and the OECD to promote the innovative and entrepreneurial higher education institution.
  • 21-septembre-2018

    Français

    L'articulation entre productivité et inclusivité

    Ce rapport sur L’articulation entre productivité et inclusivité rassemble les toutes dernières évidences empiriques sur les principaux facteurs du ralentissement des gains de productivité et des fortes inégalités ; il suggère de possibles liens et fondements communs à ces deux tendances ; il dégage de premières conclusions sur les ensembles de mesures à mettre en œuvre et sur les implications qui en découlent pour l’élaboration des politiques ; en outre il propose des domaines précis qui pourraient faire l’objet de recherches plus approfondies.Le principal message de ce rapport est un appel aux responsables de l’action publique afin qu’ils adoptent une approche plus globale et plus inclusive de la croissance de la productivité visant à développer tous les actifs productifs d’une économie en développant les compétences, en mettant en place un environnement où toutes les entreprises peuvent prospérer et en investissant dans les régions à la traîne. L’objectif premier de cette approche est d’élargir la base productive de l’économie de façon à générer à terme des gains de productivité solides et durables auxquels chacun soit en mesure de contribuer tout en s’assurant par ailleurs que chacun, dans la société, puisse en bénéficier et voir s’améliorer son niveau de vie et ses perspectives. Pour ce faire, il faudra établir un cadre d’action complet qui tienne compte de l’ensemble des interactions entre inégalités et productivité, et du jeu de ces interactions au sein des pays, et entre les régions, les entreprises et les individus. Un tel cadre peut aider les responsables de l’action publique à mettre en place des mesures ex ante et ex post visant à promouvoir les synergies, et à gérer les situations dans lesquelles les politiques à l’appui de la productivité ont un impact sur les inégalités.
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